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Paper Title :
EVALUATION OF BENCHMARK PRACTICES OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION EDUCATORS IN INDIA: A PROPOSAL WITH RESPECT TO ASPIRANTS

Abstract
Need for this paper arises for studying and analyzing the system of training need identification and actual training programme that are conducted for the teachers of higher professional education. We all must be aware that the world surrounding us is changing at a very fast pace which makes it necessary for us to keep our self updated with it.. Need for training arises not because we start losing our skills but the actual scenario is that, it is the job which is changing its nature with time and it became necessary for the job performer to meet him with this change. For doing so training is one of the effective tools which can successfully accomplish this task. Like any other job, the job expectation of a teacher is also changing with time and to fulfill them a teacher of professional education keeps himself updated with the change taking place in his respective field.

Authors:
Mr. Sumit Prasad and Ms. Anupa Chaudhary

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Paper Transcript of Paper Titled :
EVALUATION OF BENCHMARK PRACTICES OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION EDUCATORS IN INDIA:
A PROPOSAL WITH RESPECT TO ASPIRANTS


Evaluation of Benchmark Practices of Training & Development of Professional Education Educators in India: A proposal with respect to Aspirants

Sumit Prasad, Dip TD, Member IJTEMT, IEDRC
Assistant Professor
Department of Management Studies, Bhimtal
Kumaun University, Nainital
Ms. Anupa Chaudhary, Member IJTEMT, IEDRC
Assistant Professor
Seemant Institute of Technology, Pithoragarh
Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun



Abstract— Need for this paper arises for studying and analyzing the system of training need identification and actual training programme that are conducted for the teachers of higher professional education.  We  all  must  be  aware  that  the world  surrounding  us  is  changing  at  a  very  fast  pace which makes it necessary for us to keep our self updated with  it..  Need for training arises not because we start losing our skills but the actual scenario is that, it is the job which  is  changing  its  nature  with  time  and  it  became necessary  for  the  job  performer  to  meet  him  with  this change. For doing so training is one of the effective tools which can successfully accomplish this task.  Like  any other job, the job expectation of a teacher is also changing with  time  and  to  fulfill  them  a  teacher  of  professional education  keeps  himself  updated  with  the  change  taking place in his respective field.
Keywords-training; development; evaluation; education; prefessional; educators; benchmark practices; aspirants.

 Introduction

Education is always been the building block of the society, which helps in the development and transformation of the society in accordance to the changes taking place around it. Education can be defined as a concept of broadening the horizon of an individual to improve his critical mental ability of comprehending and aptitude building, over a longer time frame. The process of education and learning continues the entire life of an individual changing its form from being told & imitation to trial & error and thinking. During the entire process of learning thought out our life one thing that remains constant is our habit of learning to learn for enabling us to meet the changes taking place around us.
In India, it is quite difficult to trace the origin of education, because even as in our ritual books it has been told that the future leaders of society have to undergo a strict pattern of education known as Gurukul Parampara (Mentorship system). Pulla Rao, D (2009) says that “Education germinated in the Indian Soil right from the beginning of its history. The Vedic schools were teachers based schools. The disciples, soon after completing the education in Vedic school, (Ashram) because teachers themselves in their own native place and started ashram schools. Thus, the entire country was networked with the establishment of Ashram Schools”. In Gurukul system the Shishya (the disciple) of the Guru (the teacher) have to stay with him at his place and to learn under his mentorship. During this process the teacher shares experience and learning of his life with him, inculcate in him the basic principles of life. This helps the disciple to broaden his knowledge, which will guide him in his entire life in all his decision making processes. Now at present, during this longer pace of development of society and its values, the education system has also evolved itself a lot to meet the changing dimensions of the society and its expectation from the educational institution.
Today learning has changed its phase and has transformed from Ashram Schools to case studies and role playing methods. The thing that remains constant is the zeal of continuous learning among the learners. Education being the long time horizon concept helps in developing the critical reasoning ability of an individual for their overall development and improved living style. Later on various studies has shown that accompanying to education we required an external intervention in the present skill set of the learner so that we can work upon the skill obsolescence of the learners and keep them updated, while meeting their on-the-job and off-the-job expectations. That is how this external intervention is evolved as a separate discipline of study as Training and Development. Where training is related to the training the trainee for present skill enhance and improved performance; development is defined as his future grooming for improved decision making ability and higher off-the-job satisfaction.
A simple training process is comprises of following four overlapped stages:

  • Analysis of Organizational Training Need (AOTN).
  • Design and Development Phase.
  • Implementation.
  • Evaluation.

AOTN is the process of analysis of organizational training need which mean to do an external and internal validation of the training objective and prioritize the need generated so that the areas, in which training can be the best solution, will be segregated for the problem in which training cannot. During design and implementation phase we design the training programme and implement it and then an evaluation is carried out to measure the effectiveness of the training conducted.
Similar to any other organization, education sector is also comprises of Human Resource which are its teachers and administrative staff. And like any other output of an organization education sector is also delivering output in terms of its students, who will in future serve the society at different levels. For an optimum production of output of an organization, the entire input variables are required to be optimized, so as required in education sector also. Apart from the physical facilities in Professional Education course, the most important input variable which is required to be optimized is its faculty members, and this is the reason why the study is undertaken to evaluate the benchmark practices of training and development of professional education educators.

Scope of Research

Education and educational institutions has always played an important role in the development of the society and meeting the pace of that development. In the present scenario also the educational institutions are making their contribution at their full strength for the transformation and development of the society. For any nation the most important asset to it, is its human resource. Because human resource is the only asset which can appreciates with time if provided with the proper input. And in a country like India which is a labor surplus country, human resource is proving as an important input factor for the development of the Nation. The system of education in India has evolved a lot during the last century, but the factor which remains the same is the process of value addition that is done by the teacher in their students of higher professional education (students of under-graduation, graduation and post-graduation level of professional courses), those students who will be the leaders of tomorrow. The students, considering them as an output/end product of the educational institutions, will serve the society at different hierarchical level based on their intellectual capabilities.
In the present scenario of Global Competition national boundaries no longer can restrict the competitive force (Kumar Singh, Anup 2010). The present context of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization has depicted the importance of interdependency and competitiveness of different nations for the better utilization of the available resource. This has also reflected in the field of education, resulting in losing the strength of the student’s employability in industry (the recruiters of the professional course students). A large number of senior secondary graduates are opting for higher education specifically higher professional education with the hope that it will add value to their personal and professional life. This has generated a need to create a competitive environment for the development of the students for increasing their competency and their development, resulting in the study of the changing role of a teacher. Good leaders are dedicated teachers. They spend a good time and energy in developing their subordinates (Singh, 1999; Singh & Pethe, 2003). Teacher enlightens the path of success for the students and guides them like a mentor for accomplishment of their career objective.  If students are considered as an end product of education system, than the teacher (the faculty of the professional course students) is one among the input variables which can alter the quality of that output. The last century has shown the changing requirement of the society from the younger generation, in term of intellectual and behavioral skills, resulting in bringing the necessary changes in training and development practices for the teacher so that they can perform the attitude building exercise of the students more effectively while meeting the changing requirements.
Over the time it has been found that (Rajasingh, S., Rajasekaran, B. 2009), ‘there was a wide gap between the perception of industry and faculty on criteria for quality of students especially on Generic Skills and Academic preparedness. The Gap was even wider on the criteria for quality of faculty especially on presentation skills of the faculty. The perception gap between industry and faculty must be bridged to improve the employability of students and enhance the quality of higher education’.
This necessitates a need to evolve or to give prime focus of the faculty training & development and educational activities. B.O.Smith (1969) provides a meaning of Teacher-Education, “ one of the chief difference between a teacher who is theoretically trained and one who is not, is that the theoretically trained teachers will perform with a set sophisticated concepts taken from the underlying disciplines of pedagogy as well as from the pedagogical field itself. The teacher who is not theoretically trained will interpret events and objects in terms of common sense concepts that have come from the experience of the race permeated with outmode ideas about human behavior”.
Punia and Kundu (2005) suggested various sources of quality in management education. Faculty orientation, training and development are one of them. They examined the importance and availability of various faculty attribute apart from technical attributes they have.  They also recommended that the faculty development should an important priority of higher professional education institutions.
The objective of the researcher is to evaluate the benchmark practices of training and development of professional education educators in India: a proposal with respect to aspirant, so that they can increase their competency domain in the right direction. Competency domain can be defined as a composition of knowledge, skills and attitude that any individual holds. Measurement of its effectiveness can be done by analyzing the present system of Analysis of Training Need, if any. (Truelove, S. 2000) Analysis of Training Need is the process of taking an overview of the performance of the organization/individual. Its purpose is to identify where training can make major contribution to the improvement of organizational performance. The need of proper analysis of training need is because if the training need is not in synchronization with the problem identified then the whole effort for training will be diluted. This can be better understood with an example: If a teacher of an engineering stream, even after his continuous efforts, is unable to generate interest of his students in a subject of management stream which is to be taught as a part course-curriculum, and identifies for himself that perhaps his knowledge of subject at present is not sufficient for him to make the students listen and follow him. Might be possible that the need identified by the teacher to the effect of lack of interest is correct, but after conducting an analysis of training need we will come to a conclusion that boredom in the subject is just an effect and we still have to work upon the cause of this effect so that based upon which the appropriate training programme can be identified. Lack of subject knowledge of the teacher is a relevant cause but it can also be possible that boredom is because of the teaching style or the communication skill etc.
This leads to us conclude that the need of the hour is to evaluate the present benchmark practices of training and development of professional education educators and to find out the whether there is a requirement of proper system of analysis of training need for the faculty of professional education educators for conducting their training and development activities more effectively and efficiently.

Review of Literature

Anderson, A.H. 2000 defines training as, “..the systematic development of the attitude, knowledge and skill behavior pattern by an individual in order to perform adequately a given task or job. (Department of Employment, Glossary of Training Terms)”. Training is the process of changing the behaviour of any individual for his future development. Anderson, A.H. 2000, training emphasis gives a hierarchical representation of training outcome as:
i. Simple motor skill, which demand little knowledge ex. Stamping document.
ii. More complex skill, which requires some knowledge base.
iii. Even more complex skills, which requires non-procedural skills.
iv. Ability to merge knowledge and skills.
v. Ability to integrate attitude, knowledge and skills, to create interpersonal skills.
The traditional approach of Training defines it as a process of four segregated stages starting from:
i.        Training needs analysis.
ii.       Design/development phase.
iii.      Implementation phase.
iv.     Evaluation of the training outcome.
Training need analysis is the process of locating the problem and identifying the need of training followed by second stage of design and development phase which deals with the design of a training programme based on the need identified in the previous stage, step three of implementation phase is simply the implementation of the designed training programme and last stage of evaluation deals with the evaluation of the training outcome to measure the effectiveness of the training programme. Over the time it has observed that they are not four independent stages, in actual practice they overlap each other, as the outcome of the last stage i.e. evaluation stage, which was done earlier, will serve as a base for knowing the present status of competency and to forecast the required level of competency for the changing job complexities. It has been observed that the first stage i.e. analysis of training need is the most important stage of training process. Analysis of training need helps in identifying that what are the problematic areas or to identify the gap between the present competency and required competency. It helps in defining the problem and to differentiate between cause and effect of the problem. It is very important to differentiate cause and effect of the problem, because it might be possible that if the effect is misjudged as a cause and the training need is identified while considering it, than there are some chances that the training programme will result into nothing. Also Analysis of training need helps into identifying and ensuring that the problem which has been identified, can training be the best solution for it, or otherwise it will have some other solution to it. If training cannot contribute for its solution then the problem is communicated to the concerned department.
The process of analysis of organizational training need is comprises of following steps (Truelove, S. 2000):
i.        Appointment of a responsible person or a team.
ii.       Plan the Analysis of organizational training need activity.
iii.      Collect and analyze information to identify issues and performance problems.
iv.     Further investigate to separate cause from effect.
v.      Generate and evaluate solution matching to cause.
vi.     Report the results.
vii.    Implement proposal.
viii.   Review, modify, revise proposal, if required.
Apart from analysis of training need, the fourth stage training outcome evaluation is very important to study, as it reflects the result achieved by the training process. At time people believe that implementation, evaluation and feedback are three completely distinct stages having one way contact with each other. The author in personal opinion believes that even they are different, they complement each other and as well they are two directional in nature. During the implementation phase, the designed training programme is implemented, but it is not done in isolation. The process of evaluation is continuously working during the implementation phase also and keeping a record of the deviation of actual from desired providing a continuous feedback to the system so that any deviation will be rectified as early as possible so that the losses can be minimized.
Kirkpatrick (1976) put forward a conceptual framework suggesting four levels of criteria for evaluating training outcome:
1)  Reaction Evaluation: The participant suggestions for the trainer, duration, material etc. are observed.
2)  Learning Evaluation: Skills, knowledge and attitude learned during the program.
3)  Behavior Evaluation: Change in the on-the-job behavior performance.
4)  Result Evaluation: The ultimate change in the performance of the organization like cost saving etc.
Similarly, War, Bird and Rackham (1970) have also suggested a different approach for evaluation, using the first four letters of the different levels it is the acronym called CIRO:
1)  Context Evaluation: What need to be changed?
2)  Input Evaluation: What procedures are most likely to bring about change?
3)  Reaction Evaluation: What are the trainees’ opinions of the training? It is the least useful, easiest and most frequently used method for evaluation. It provides help based on the idea that training should be a self correcting system. If also serves a mode of feedback. Reactions are generally collected by questionnaire.
4)  Outcome Evaluation: Proof of change in behaviour? It is the longest time horizon evaluation process. This primarily focuses on measuring the long term benefit of training. It also helps in identifying the extent to which training is able to achieve its objective. Outcome evaluation is conducted in three phases which are:
a) Immediate: These are results based on the immediate output, that what are the changes in KSA have resulted? Here the concern is related to the measure of the effect caused by training in KSA.
b) Intermediate: It is the measure of change in job performance because of training. But it became difficult to separate the effect of training from other causes. It can be done by:
» Direct Measure: By measuring the performance in quantitative value.
» Indirect Measure: By assigning a numeric value to subjective judgment of performance. This can be done by using performance grid technique. This can be done by asking a judge to rate individual on the dimension of motivation and skills. Rating from low to high.
c) Ultimate: It is the ultimate effect which has been caused to the organization by training. Its main focus will be on the cost effectiveness of the training. It can be done by
» Cost effective analysis: Examination of training on the basis of monetary terms.
» Cost benefit analysis: Examination of training on the basis of non-monetary terms. Done by:
Human resource value (HRV): The performance rating is converted to a cash value by multiplying it by the personnel cost. This helps to calculate the HRV before the training. And after the training personnel cost is multiplied by new performance rating to calculate new HRV. And its difference indicates us about the effectiveness of the training to organization.
(Kumar Singh, Anup 2010), A faculty member during his entire career, serve different roles to the institution, as during initial phase of his career his prime focus is on teaching improvement and research work, in the middle time period he contribute as management improvement and consulting and during the most senior period of his life he contributes as an academic developer and institution building role player. We know, in present era there is a presence of global competition and complementariness, which is bring all the worldwide resources together and utilizing them optimally. This increase in competition is resulting into the higher level of expectations of the end users or society from the goods and service industry, so do is for every field. And our education sector also not remained untouched from this competition. The students which are passing out every year from the universities have to face an international competition from worldwide industries. This has increased the opportunity available for them but at the same it has taken the completion into global level where they have to compete with the students of foreign universities. This increasing competition is now reflecting in the employability of these students and hence reduced the number of employment. The employability of the students has become a dependent variable of quality of the students produced by any higher professional educational institution. Quality can be understood as the presence of attributes in any end product which are desired by its end users. It is very necessary for any product to be a quality product that, it must hold all the specifications as desired/required/forecasted/predicted.
Diana Green (1991) defined the Quality of Higher Education as “Producing Graduates to meet the Human Resource needs of an Organization in the Business, Industrial and Service Sector”. Quality in education is referred to as the inculcating a set of knowledge, attitude and skill behavioral pattern in the students, by their undergoing through the course curriculum, so that they can successfully meet the requirement/expectations of the society at various stages. Many researchers has pointed out that the expectations of the different members of the society are different, from the students. Based on their own (members of the society) perception and requirements the criteria for quality in higher education has various dimensions as according to the society (Peoples), Management of the institution, Faculty, Recruiters and very differently but obvious for students. The public wants the students to be graduate with general abilities and emphasizes criteria such as communication skills (Cave & Hanney, 1992). Faculty view the primary obligation of the university to the student to be the development of intellectual independence (Baird, 1988), and hence focus on criteria’s such as ability to think critically (Barnett, 1988; Trice & Dey 1997).   Apart from all these expectations, students have a very different concern of their careers; they value criteria such as the ability to get a job (Dey, Astin, & Korn, 1991). Above all the management of the institution wants to show that the input factors, which it is providing for the students development, are capable and being used very potentially, for them, student completion of programme requirement is an important criteria (Nandeau, Donald, & Konrad, 1992). (Rajasingh, S., Rajasekaran, B. 2009), “To date, perception of the major stakeholder “industry” on the quality criteria of students (output) and the faculty (input) is ignored and left unaddressed. Hence we sought to determine the perception of faculty and industry on the criteria for both the quality of students and faculty. The perception gap between the academic leaders and industry leaders is sought to be identified on criteria/factors for quality of student’s such as communication skills, academic performance, generic skills, learning skills, social responsibility, employment competence and academic preparedness”. Thus the above argument leads us to conclude that there is a difference in expectation from a student by a faculty and recruiter, which leads to the confusion in students for his identifying the right path for his excellence. Where student is the end product and teacher is one among the input variable used in the transformation process of the student, it became necessary for the teacher to keep himself updated, as according to the requirements at times. The above problem can be solved by bridging this gap between the expectation of faculty and the expectation of recruiter. This leads a faculty member to continuously undergo faculty development programme on continuous basis.
Pulla Rao, D (2009), Training for teachers in higher education is relatively a new phenomenon. In pursuance of the proposal of the NPE-1986, the government of India has established 48 academic staff colleges, which impart in-service training to the teachers of higher education. At, present 51 of such academic staff colleges are functioning. These institutions are fully financed by UGC and are supposed conduct orientation course for newly recruited teachers and refresher courses for existing ones. The academic staff college of Uttarakhand is in Kumaun University Nainital. Here we are not much concerned about where the training is conducted, but the point of concern is how a training need has been identified for any teacher and how it is so sure that the training need which has been identified is the appropriate solution to the problem faced. Is there a specific method for training need analysis of it has been identified by the trainee at random.
Training can be defined as an instructor led content based intervention used to systematically develop the attitude, knowledge and skill behavior pattern of an individual, so that he can perform a repetitive task more efficiently and effectively. Development, under the traditional vision falls in the middle between training and education. Development can cover the present role or some grooming for the future greatness (Anderson, A.H. 2000). Need for training and development arises in any area because of the changing nature and the complexities of jobs. It helps in reducing the obsolescence of skill and always helps the trainee to update his competency domain. Gaff (1975), in his seminal work, pointed out that an educational institution can get high return on investment in faculty in terms of productivity, creativity, morale, satisfaction and renewal of faculty. Mishra (2002) opined that no educational system can exist without competent faculty. An effective teacher not only imparts education but he should also inspire his student. Faculty development programmes/training and development activities for faculties in higher professional educational institutions are always been an important role player for the development of faculties. In the field of management education Punia and Kundu (2005) suggested various sources of quality in management education. Faculty orientation and development is one of them. They examined the importance and applicability of various faculties attributes such as, communication, subject knowledge, commitment, encouragement for class participation, accessibility of teachers in and out of class etc. They found that there is a wide gap between the importance of all these attributes and there applicability in both government and private organization. Today in the field of professional education, where global competition is increasing, it has become very important for a good teacher to be a good learner. Access to knowledge is increased with the usage of internet and e-books, as a result of which the competency domain of a faculty obsolete very fast. That is why it became necessary for him to undergo continues training and development programme. This too also happens with the faculty who are scared of adopting new technology in their style of teaching, as Kean (1992) pointed out that many faculty are confused and threatened by communication technologies, as a result, their teaching suffers. The need for faculty training and development is developing concern to identify the attributes which are the part of the competency domain of a teacher to serve his duties efficiently.
Sometimes there remains a gap between the present competency domain and the required competency from a trainee, which is called as training gap. This training gap is identified by analyzing the training need. Analysis of training need is the process of taking an overview of the performance of an individual. It is the process of analyzing the present status of an individual/organization based on some pre defined attributes, judging his present performances and drawing conclusions based on those attributes. For a teacher, as said above, it is very necessary to keep him updated and for doing so he continuously has to identify the training gap. Actual problem arises, when a teacher at random, identifies or selected for him any training programme without undergoing a proper analysis of training need. Here the point of concern is to check whether the present method, if any, is working appropriately and it not then how can it be improvised.

Proposed Objectives of Study

Among all the stages of training, Analysis of Organizational Training Need (AOTN), is the most important and time taking process which is required to be done to make any training programme effective. The study ‘Evaluation of Benchmark Practices of Training and Development of Professional Education Educator in India- A proposal with respect to aspirants’, is limited to the first stage of training programme that whether there is proper method of AOTN for Professional Education Educators which is followed. For doing so the following sub-objectives are formulated
1)      To identify the different benchmark practices of training and development of professional education educator followed in India.
2)      To measure Attitude of trainees (trainees are the teachers undergone any training programme) toward Training and Development Benchmark Practices.
3)      To measure the effectiveness of present Benchmark Practices of Training and Development of Professional Education Educators followed in India.

Hypotheses

Following are the hypothesis development for the achievement of above said objectives:
1.1.   Null Hypothesis (H0): There are no significant benchmark practices of training and development of professional education educators that are followed in India.
1.2.   Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significance relationship between awareness about benchmark practices and the training programme attended.
1.3.   Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant relationship between benchmark practices and their expansion of competency domain.
During the course of study if any new hypotheses are emerged, they will also be included.

Research Methodology

Research Methodology is a guideline system to scientifically solve a research problem, with specific components such as methods, techniques and tools. It can be defined also as the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline. It is therefore a prerequisite for a researcher to design the research methodology for their problem since it may differ from problem to problem. The research methodology used here is descriptive in nature. The research methodology undertaken includes:
1.      Population: The study is concerned with the ‘Evaluation of Benchmark Practices of Training and Development Practices of Professional Education Educators in India- A proposal with respect to Aspirants ’, and hence the population will be the Professional Education Educator India who are aspiring for various training programmes, which means that the Faculty Members of Professional Courses delivering their contribution of inculcating various skills in students, which will help them in their various stages of life. The population for the study undertaken will be the Educators of Management Education because the benchmark practices that have been setup are distinctive for different Professional Education Educators depending upon the nature of the course we are considering. 
2.      Sample Size: Based upon Yamane (1967:886) formulae for a population more than 1.00.000, at 95 % confidence, ±5 % precision and a proportion of 0.5 indicating maximum variability in population, the number of respondents for the study will not be less than 400. Sampling technique which can be used is snowball sampling as the research is primarily targets upon professional educator educators who are undergoing any training or development activity will be more effectively accessible using reference group of the first level respondent who are directly known to the researcher.
3.      Method for data collection: The data is to be collected via primary and secondary sources. Method which will be considered is interviewing method. Interviewing method can used, in the form of in-depth interviews and/or telephonic interviews, depending upon the constraint of research. Also expert’s opinion would seek to attain an in-depth insight of different benchmark practices and their impact.  
4.      Analysis of Data: Analysis of data is done by measuring attitudinal responses of the population. Attitudinal responses will be analyzed using various statistical tools and available software which are relevant with the study.

Limitations of the Study

There are some problems which might be faced by the researcher during the research work as:
i.        Because the proposed research work is new in this field, hence it has a shortage of review of literature and secondary data sources.
ii.       Because of the shortage of review of literature and secondary data resources this research work is more inclined toward exploratory and qualitative research.
iii.      Problem of proper selection of ideal sample size due to time constraint of research work, lack of previous data availability and financial constraint.
iv.     Because of a large size of population for study in India, there is a problem of proper representation of sample of entire population.
v.      Problems in data collection due to diversified sector in economy.

References

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