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Paper Title :
Job Satisfaction Among Employees in FMCG Sector In Uttarakhand
A Proposal with reference to Selected Organisations in U.S.Nagar.

Abstract
Job satisfaction is a key means for improvingthe performance of employees and maintaining the harmonious relationship between employers and employees. Through the research work we propose to measure the level of satisfaction among the employees of FMCG sector in Uttarakhand. For undergoing the research work we have selected the employees of four FMCG sectors with reference to Udham Singh Nagar District of Uttarakhand. The need for the study is arises considering the HR theories that improves job satisfaction result into higher level of self-satisfaction which get reflected in integration of individual goals to organizational goals.

Authors:
Mrs. Pratibha Pant, Prof. P. C. Kavidayal & Dr. Hitesh Kumar Pant
Department of Management Studies
Bhimtal, Kumaun Univeristy, India.

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Paper Transcript of Paper Titled :
Job Satisfaction Among Employees in FMCG Sector In Uttarakhand
A Proposal with reference to Selected Organisations in U.S.Nagar.


Job Satisfaction Among Employees in FMCG Sector In Uttarakhand
A Proposal with reference to Selected Organisations in U.S.Nagar.


Mrs. Pratibha Pant
Lecturer, Department of Management Studies
Bhimtal, Kumaun Univeristy, India.
Prof. P. C. Kavidayal
Head, Department of Management Studies
Bhimtal, Kumaun Univeristy, India.
Dr. Hitesh Kumar Pant
Lecturer, Department of Management Studies
Bhimtal, Kumaun Univeristy, India.


 


Abstract:     Job satisfaction is a key means for improving the performance of employees and maintaining the harmonious relationship between employers and employees. Through the research work we propose to measure the level of satisfaction among the employees of FMCG sector in Uttarakhand. For undergoing the research work we have selected the employees of four FMCG sectors with reference to Udham Singh Nagar District of Uttarakhand. The need for the study is arises considering the HR theories that improves job  satisfaction result into higher level of self-satisfaction which get reflected in integration of individual goals to organizational goals.
Keywords-jobsatisfaction; employees performance;organisation climate ;welfare activities.

 Introduction

Job satisfaction has been found to be a multidimensional construct manifesting the emotional evaluations of individual regarding their expectations and how well they have been met. Job satisfaction is commonly interpreted as the intrinsic sense of accomplishment emerged from performing tasks while carrying out one’s contractual obligations. The term job satisfaction come into vogue when Hoppock (in 1935) published his classic work ‘job satisfaction’. He defined job satisfaction as ‘any combination of psychological and environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully to say, I am satisfied with my job’. Milton Blum (1949) later on has pointed out that job satisfaction is the result of various attitudes the employees holds towards his job, towards related factors, and towards life in general. We say that job satisfaction is an attitude which results from a balancing and summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job. In job satisfaction, four parameters are involved:-
      The person’s needs values and character traits.
      The person’s education, training, skill, experience etc. that determine his contribution to the job.
      Reward the employer gives to him.
      Rewards given to other employees in this and other similar organization. Different combination of these factors account for satisfaction-dissatisfaction of employees.
Management is responsible for effective utilization of resources. In order for management to successfully complete this mission, it must be able to utilize the most important resources human being in a manner that will allow personal satisfaction while achieving organizational goals. The attainment of the goals is the best measure of effectiveness and is dependent upon successful combination of all available resources. One of the means of which these objectives can be achieved is by providing conducive work culture to the employees so that they are mentally, physically and emotionally relaxed to perform their duties and contribute to organizational effectiveness.
Job satisfaction is the result of various attitude possessed by an employees towards his job. These attitudes are related to specific factors such as wages. Conditions of work, advancement opportunity, prompt settlement of grievances. Fair treatment by employees and other fringe benefits. Job satisfaction may be define as an attitude which results from a balancing and summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job.

 Statement Of The Problem

 Indian organizations are often criticized for lack of positive job satisfaction. People often compare the work culture of Indian organization with those found in the west and come to the conclusion that Indians lacks positive work culture. Often comparisons are made with the Japanese work culture and again Indian is found wanting vis-à-vis its Asian counterparts. It is not uncommon to find Indian workers being accused of high absenteeism, poor discipline, low morale and lack of interest in work and having little concern for productivity. To the extent that this criticism is valid, it points towards erosion of work ethic in Indian organization. At the same time, Indians working abroad, whether as scholars, scientists, professionals, artisans or even unskilled workers are known to have done their country proud by exhibiting a level of performance is second to none. Within Indian too there are organizations, which are well known for having developed a culture of high performance.
The change in the economic policies in the recent past especially after 1991 and the corresponding linearization of economy have placed competitive challenges before Indian firms. While opening up new opportunity for corporate expansion corporate expansion and growth for many firms these changes have also created patent threats for survival of others. The rapid expansion of industrial activities required large scale impact of western technology and work farms, which are also expected to certain western work culture of the protestant ethic nature. The work values however are not internalized by the Indians to the extent expected.
In this study ‘job’ means the total relationship between the individual employees and his employer (organization) and with work for which he gets compensated. The term ‘satisfaction’ refers to the simple feeling/ state accompanying the attainment by an impulse of his/her objectives. The term ‘job satisfaction’ therefore refers to the favorableness with which employees view their work and the term ‘job dissatisfaction ‘to the unfavourableness which they take their work.
Job satisfaction is the result of various attitude possessed by an employee towards his job. These attitudes are related to specific factors such as wages, conditions of work, advancement opportunity, prompt settlement of grievances, fair treatment by employer and other fringe benefits. Job satisfaction may be defined as an attitude which results from a balancing and summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job.
The last three decades, the problem of job satisfaction has attracted considerable attention of industrial psychologists. It is regarded as a very significant factor in workers morale, absenteeism, accidents, and turnover to some extent productivity, though its relationship with productivity is not very clear.
Morse (1952) suggested that an organization can be evaluated in terms of human satisfaction” the importance of job satisfaction is not only for its possible association with productivity, absenteeism, turnover and accidents. It s generally agreed that the dissatisfaction in job is due to poor mental health which will give rise to anxiety, depression, hyperacidity, headache and frustration. Since workers spend most of his time on the job, he does not get job satisfaction. Thus the dissatisfaction of jobs may cause social problems.
Luthans (1992) defined job satisfaction as a result of the employee’s expectation of how well their job provides those things which are viewed as important. Employee’s satisfaction from their jobs is highly significant for the effective functioning of any organization. It plays a key role in influencing the attendance of workers, their productivity, work motivation, moral and the overall industrial relations (Scarpello and Campbell, 1983: Srivastava and Roy, 1996, Rajgopal, 1965, Nwestorm and Davis, 1998, vroom, 1964) thus, the understanding of the job satisfaction level of the workers is essential in order to motivate them for better productivity.

  Objective of the study

   To see whether the job satisfaction, propensity to quit the job and job stress differ according to types of organization and levels of employees/workers.

  •    To examine inter correlation among job satisfaction and other variable (such as age, experience, education, income, job stress and performance)
  •    To identify the major causes of job dissatisfaction as perceived by different categories of respondents and.
  •    To make recommendation to improve the situation for making pragmatic policy to improve the satisfaction level among employees/workers. The impact of job stress on job satisfaction on of   employees towards FMCG sector in Uttarakhand.

B          Hypothisis

 The scales which will be used to complete this study is known as LEA (long employee attitude) scale. Developed by Dr. H.C.Ganguli. Before developing hypotheses for the study all the nine heads of job satisfaction. Containing 26 items have been divided in the following two parts.             
A-     Financial such as:
(1)     Income.
(2)     Promotional & training opportunities.
(3)     Welfare activities health, canteen etc.

B-     Non-financial related to company practices & policies:
(1)     Nature of work.
(2)     Security.
(3)     Supervisors’ behavior
(4)     Union – Management relation.
(5)     Colleagues/co-workers.
(6)     Company practices / policies.

On the basis of the above two categories the following hypotheses have been formulated.
1. There is a relationship between income, promotional & training opportunities, Welfare activities and job satisfaction.
2. There is a relationship between nature of work, security, supervisor’s behavior and Job satisfaction.

3 There is no relationship between union-management relation, colleagues/co-workers Company practices/policies and job satisfaction.

  Research design

The proposed research has been designed as follows:

  Area of study:
uttarakhand comprises of two divisions Kumaun and Garhwal region. If we talk about state infrastructure development corporation of uttarakhand ltd (SIDCUL). Has two SIDCULs one is developed in kumaun region especially in distric of Udham Singh Nagar and another is developed in Garhwal region specially spread in Haridwar and Deharadun districts. For the proposed study only one SIDCUL situated in Udham Singh Nagar of Uttarakhand is taken.
Udham Singh Nagar District. The biggest of Uttarakhand state is situated in North of the state at Tarai area of the state. This district is prosperous in terms of agriculture and industrial development: earlier governments of Uttar Pradesh and government of India had emphasized its attention on this district for the development of agriculture based industries and other industries.
The industries like century pulp and paper ltd., Pepsi co. holdings (India) ltd., Mahindra &Mahindra ltd., Shri ram Honda India ltd. Godfrey Philips India ltd. had established before 2000. The government of newly formed state of Uttarakhand has formed an SIDCUL (state infrastructure development corporation of Uttarakhand ltd.) to govern, promote and attract industrialists in the state. SIDCUL has established industrial park in Pant Nagar-Rudarpur. About 350 industries are there. Most of the industries has started its production and are in growing stage. These industries are categories as newly established industries.
There are many industries based on FMCG sector running successfully, earning high profit and contributing in making economy strong.
These industries are Nestle India, Bisleri Pvt. ltd, Dabur India, Hindustan Unilever ltd, in Udham Singh Nagar District except above mentioned industries have a variety of roles to play. Some of these may lead to high degree of job satisfaction irrespective of the job stress experienced, for example, degree of independence and authority, high salary, new challenges etc. 

  • The result of the study shows that there is a possibility of negative relationship between job satisfaction and stress among managers. However it dose not reach the critical level required for it to be statistically significant. Perhaps the variables leading to job satisfaction do not involve stress experienced during the job of a manager. Managers have a varity of roles to play. Some of these may lead to high degree of job satisfaction irrespective of the job stress experienced, for example degree of independence and authority, high salary, new challenges etc. by the same token there might be variables in the job which may lead to high degree of job stress independent of job satisfaction for example, long working hours, too many meeting targets, fiscal accuracy, dependence on others for getting their job done. Unless specific stress factors are invoked, job satisfaction may not be impacted.

Scope

 The scope of this proposed study is restricted to FMCG   sector.

 Sample population :

  Workers, supervisors and trade union of the selected organizations would be included in the proposed study. The methods of judgment or purposive would be adopted to draw the sample.

Sample population and size :

Appropriate number of respondent shall be included keeping in view the objectives of the study.

Developing questionnaire:

The questionnaire based on LEA Scale developed by Dr.H.C.Ganguli consisting of all the 26 items related to job satisfaction would be used.

 

 Data sourse and collection methords :

Both primary data and secondary data have to be used.

Primary data: would be collected from the selected organization of Udham Singh Nagar District of uttarakhand through a structured questionnaire adminisisered for this purpose only.

Secondary data:  data would be drived from books, periodicals reports, websites and other publications. It will be evaluated for its suitability and relevance to the proposed study.

 Analysis and interpretation of data:

 Employee’s attitude scale by Dr.H.C.Ganguli: This is widely used scale measuring job satisfaction of employees/workers. The scale consist 26 items in relation to job satisfaction. 26 items of the LEA scale could be replied by checking any one of the five answers: agreed, undecided,disagreed, strongly agreed, and disagreed. The score alloted for each items is 1,2,3,4and 5 respectively. One items of the LEA scale has three alternatives and the scores allotted are 2,3 and 4.Higher the score greater the satisfaction. The minimum and maximum score of the LEA scale could be 27 and 129 respectively. The reliability and validity is found to be quite high.

Standard Score:

 Insert in order to make intergroup and intragroup comparison of satisfaction scores standard scores are required. Therefore actual satisfaction scores from the LEA are converted into standard score with a mean of 50 and SD of 10. Thereafter standard score norms are developed for placing employees in five categories of goodness ( such as standard scores of satisfaction 15 and less is put under highly dissatisfaction group and standard scores of satisfaction 66 and above is put under highly satisfied group).

Reassign Appropriate statistical tools and techniques like Dr. H.C. Ganguli’s the LEA (Long employees attitude Scale), Likert’s scale would be used. Different factors identified from different channels will be evaluated with the help of SPSS(Statistical Package for social science) software.

Limitation of The Study

Though the present study aims to achieve the above mentioned objectives in full earnest and accuracy. It may be hampered due to certain limitations. Some of the limitation of this study may be summarized as follows:

  • Some employees may be reluctant in filling questionnaire.
  • Employees may be sometimes biased in filling the questionnaire.
  • It is difficult to personally visit all the companies taken for study.
  • Errors may be due to variability of population.
  • Improper coverage and inadequate or incomplete response may lead to errors.
  • Sample size is limited.

Conclusion

This proposed study has focussed on job satisfaction level of FMCG sector employees under this study we conclude that all the financial  and non- financial factors  directly or indirectily effect the performance of employees and some t ime these factors are responseble for creating a strees for an individual performance and group performance. If organisations focuses more on non-financial factors in comparision to financial factor so they play a very vital role for improving the performance of employees and maintaining a harmonious relationship between employer and employees.

References

G Ganguli, H.C. October30, 1947 hand book of SEA and LEA, employee attitude scale, national psychological corporation.
Kanungo, Rabindra N. (1982), “Measurement of Job and Work Involvement”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(3):341-49.
Akhtar, S.S. and Pestonjee, D.M., “Organizational Structure and Employees ‘Adjustment,” Indian Journal of Social Work, 1967, 23 (3), pp. 297-301.
Locke, Edwin A. (1969), “What is Job Satisfaction?” Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 4(4): 309-36.
Organ, D. W. & Konovsky, M. A. (1989) “Cognitive versus Affective OrDeterminants of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 74:157-64.
Organ, D. W. & Konovsky, M. A. (1989) “Cognitive versus Affective OrDeterminants of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 74:157-64.
Farh, J. L., Podsakoff, P.M. & Organ, D.W. (1990), “Accounting for Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: Leader Fairness and Task Scope Versus Satisfaction”, Journal of Management, 16: 705-21.

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