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Paper Title :
Analysis of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of the Employees in Public and Private Sector

Abstract
This paper attempts to find out the level of job satisfaction and its relationship with various factors in an emerging economy like India. The Survey methods were used in public and private sector firms to find out the taxonomy of job satisfaction. The important factors that are taken into consideration are incentives and hours of work, Management (Boss) & Colleagues, Availability of other better opportunities, Future prospect (promotion and job security), Difficulty of job (manually tiring, forceful overtime), Job content and interest and Prestige. AfterPost liberalization Indian economy has seen an exponential growth in GDP (approx. seven folds from 1991) and since then job market in India has been growing rapidly. The importance of job satisfaction has been supported by surveys conducted on 500 employees from different sectors in India and classified according to age, gender and region. This paper studies seven summary variables measuring job satisfaction among workers from different sectors of Indian job market.The seven factors at the end have been used to find out the answer for “who has got the good jobs” and how can the employee job satisfaction improved in a rapidly growing economy like in India. Frequency distribution analysis shows that job satisfaction is strongly correlated with all the job quality measures.

Author
Geeta Kumari
Research Scholar
Department of Management, Jharkhand Roy University, Ranchi, India

Dr. Gaurav Joshi
Lal Bahadur Shastri Institute of Management, New Delhi, India

Dr. K.M. Pandey
Department of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam, India

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Paper Transcript of Paper Titled :
Analysis of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of the Employees in Public and Private Sector


Analysis of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of the Employees in Public and Private Sector

Geeta Kumari[1], Dr. Gaurav Joshi[2] and Dr. K.M. Pandey[3]

[1]Research Scholar,
Department of Management, Jharkhand Roy University, Ranchi, India

[2]Lal Bahadur Shastri Institute of Management, New Delhi, India

[3]Department of Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam, India


 


Abstract-

This paper attempts to find out the level of job satisfaction and its relationship with various factors in an emerging economy like India. The Survey methods were used in public and private sector firms to find out the taxonomy of job satisfaction. The important factors that are taken into consideration are incentives and hours of work, Management (Boss) & Colleagues, Availability of other better opportunities, Future prospect (promotion and job security), Difficulty of job (manually tiring, forceful overtime), Job content and interest and Prestige. AfterPost liberalization Indian economy has seen an exponential growth in GDP (approx. seven folds from 1991) and since then job market in India has been growing rapidly.  The importance of job satisfaction has been supported by surveys conducted on 500 employees from different sectors in India and classified according to age, gender and region. This paper studies seven summary variables measuring job satisfaction among workers from different sectors of Indian job market.The seven factors at the end have been used to find out the answer for “who has got the good jobs” and how can the employee job satisfaction improved in a rapidly growing economy like in India. Frequency distribution analysis shows that job satisfaction is strongly correlated with all the job quality measures.

  1. INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW.

Locke [3] stated job satisfaction as a pleasurable positive state resulting from one's job and job experience. Individuals show pleasurable positive attitudes when they are satisfied with their job. Drever [4] described job satisfaction ''as an end state of feeling. Similarly, a job is an important part of life, job satisfaction influences one's general life satisfaction as an effective reaction, feeling of employees with job, supervision, co-workers, salary/pay and his/her current and future career progress. The causes of employees' satisfaction are restricted to implant factors alone but they sum the whole gamut of men's needs and aspirations. Job satisfaction is a general attitude which is the result of many specific attitudes. It is essential to make a distinction of job satisfaction from job climate and job involvement. Job satisfaction is an effective or evaluative state while the concept of climate is a descriptive, cognitive, and non-evaluative construct .This classification is further emphasized in the work of (James and Jones, 1974; Locke, 1976;) as mentioned in [2] and [3] .
The extensive research that has been done on levels of job satisfaction may have distinctive applications to academic faculty. This is especially true when the separation between satisfaction and dissatisfaction is viewed in relation to the intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of academic employment. In his well known motivational model, Herzberg [1] makes some basic distinctions between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The differentiations are founded on needs related to prime human characteristics, the ability to achieve and through that achievement to experience psychological growth. The dual factors arise from alternate needs that spring from basic animal nature, a drive to avoid pain from the environment and all the learned drives that are built on those basic needs. For example, an extrinsic factor, the drive to earn a good salary, is built upon the basic need of hunger. However, intrinsic factors such as responsibility and the satisfaction with work itself arise from the human ability to personally advance and grow. In the educational setting, intrinsic factors involve a direct link between faculty and their day to day routine, the actual performance of the job itself. "Intrinsic to the job are: the work itself, responsibility, and growth or achievement (Herzberg, 1987)." Herzberg's extrinsic or dissatisfaction-avoidance factors include organizational policy, status, pay, benefits, and overall work conditions. These factors comprise the background of one's work, the environment setting. Extrinsic factors less immediately affect the day to day job but are always in the background.
The most important information to have regarding an employee in an organization is a validated measure of his/her level of job satisfaction. Behavioural and social science research suggests that job satisfaction and job performance are positively correlated. A better understanding of job satisfaction and factors associated with it helps managers guide employees' activities in a desired direction. The morale of employees is a deciding factor in the organization's efficiency. Thus, it is fruitful to say that managers, supervisors, human resource specialists, employees, and citizens in general are concerned with ways of improving job satisfaction [12]. The foundation of job satisfaction or job motivation theory was introduced by Maslow. He (1943, 1954) asserts that human motives emerge sequentially to satisfy a hierarchy of five needs: physiological (food, clothing, shelter, sex), safety (physical protection), social (opportunities to develop close associations whit other persons), and achievement/esteem (prestige received from others), and self-actualization (opportunities for self-fulfilment and accomplishment through personal growth). Individual need satisfaction is influenced both by the importance attached to various needs and the degree to which each individual perceive that different aspects of his or her life should, and actually do, fulfil these needs. Porter (1961) argues that within the work environment, individual develop attitudes concerning their jobs based upon their perception of the presence or absence of positively-valued job characteristics that address specific needs. Thus, a person’s job satisfaction is result when job-related exceptions and needs remain unfulfilled. Herzberg, Mauser and Snyderman (1959) posited the view that job satisfaction is not a one-dimensional concept, but rather that work-related variables which contribute to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those factors which contribute to job dissatisfaction. By 1968 Herzberg had advanced the dual factor theory, which held that to not have job satisfaction does not imply dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction, whereas the absence of job dissatisfaction does not imply satisfaction with the job, but only no dissatisfaction. Looked at in terms of ‘opposites’, the ‘opposite’ of job satisfaction is no satisfaction rather than dissatisfaction and the ‘opposite’ of job dissatisfaction is no job dissatisfaction, rather than satisfaction According to Herzberg (1959), intrinsic elements of the job are related to the actual content of work, such as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibilities, and advancement. These were referred to as ‘motivational’ factors and are significant elements in job satisfaction. By contrast, Herzberg described extrinsic factors as elements associated with the work environment, such as working conditions, salary, working conditions, supervision, company policy, and interpersonal relationships. These were referred to as ‘context’ or ‘hygiene’ factors which are related to job dissatisfaction. Herzberg concluded that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on the same continuum. As a result, he argued that income), and that such decisions are influenced by intrinsic motives, such as seeking opportunities for professional growth through compatible work activities and colleagues. Manger and Eikeland (1990) also examined factors that impact on academics’ intentions to leave the university, and found that relations with colleagues were the largest predictor of intention to leave. They also found that general job satisfaction was a further strong predictor of intention to leave. In short, academics who found their work less intrinsically satisfying than others, more commonly intended to leave the educational institutes. Salary or economic resources as such did not appear to influence intentions to stay or go. Such studies indicate that the ‘climate’ or ‘culture’ of the environment in which academics work has a large influence on their feelings of satisfaction with the job as a whole, and their commitment to stay in the job rather than seeking to fulfil intrinsic needs elsewhere. The motivation to investigate the degree of job satisfaction arises from the fact thata better understanding of employee satisfaction is desirable to achieve a higher level of motivation which is directly associated with student achievement. Recently, the assessment of employees’ attitude such as job satisfaction has become a common activity in organizations in which management is concerned with the physical and psychological well being of people. The relationship between the individual and the factors determining job satisfaction has been extensively researched in developed countries. In 1992, it was estimated that over 5,000 articles and dissertations have examined the topic of job satisfaction (Cranny et al., 1992), and this is a continuing topic for research. An early assumption can be made that interest in the subject illustrates the significance that employee satisfaction seriously influences the total operation of an organization. Staples et al. (1998) suggest that the reason for this interest is that work takes up such a significant amount of a person’s life, and by increasing an individual’s overall satisfaction with his or her work life improves the overall well-being of the individual, the organization, and the society where both the individual and the organization reside.One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity. It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction.
Hackman & Oldham [14] proposed the Job characteristics model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors. To test the present hypothesis, René Ziegler, Britta Hagen, and Michael Diehl, University of Tübingen, Germany conducted a study in which job satisfaction, job ambivalence, and job performance were measured cross-sectionally. Further, we employed a scale to measure job satisfaction that is of a similar broad scope as job performance. More specifically, both in social psychological attitude research and in job attitude research it has been argued that it is important for measures of attitude and behavior to be compatible in terms of their level of generality (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977; Fisher, 1980; Judge et al., 2001; Harrison, Newman, & Roth, 2006).That is, it has been suggested and shown that the attitude behavior consistency is higher when both attitudes and behavior are measured at the same level of abstraction. Given that overall job performance represents a global behavior assessment, we chose to measure job attitudes with a measure of similarly broad scope. Accordingly, the Overall Job Satisfaction Scale (Brayfield & Rothe, 1951) was employed to measure job satisfaction rather than a scale assessing an individual’s satisfaction with various job facets (e.g. JDI, Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969; MSQ, Weiss et al., 1967).
GeetaKumari and Dr.K.M.Pandey [15] worked on analysis of an individual, sbehavior in work environment for better output; this research explores the cause variables which affect employee involvement. According to the empirical research finding, high-intensity internal marketing generates positive impact upon employee involvement and low-intensity internal marketing results in negative impact upon employee involvement; the effect of sentimental relationship upon employee involvement is prominent and positive; employees with personality traits of internal control reveal higher level of involvement than those with external control. Mainly this paper briefly narrates what has been studied so far on lazy people. Geeta Kumari and K.M.Pandey[16] worked on Job Satisfaction in Public Sector and Private Sector: A Comparison. Their main findings are given below: Public Sector versus Private Sector comparisons is a debate which seems to be a never ending topic. It is very difficult to take stand for either of these two forms of administration. The reason behind that is not unknown but obvious as both provide scopes in different ways. Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. This paper surveys both the sectors in most of the aspects of analysis.. As the current findings show, jobholders vary regarding the extent of ambivalence experienced with respect to their attitude toward their job. The current findings also open up opportunities for further research regarding the consequences of job ambivalence. For instance, the present findings imply that job performance of individuals with high versus low job ambivalence may fluctuate such that job performance is comparatively high when positive beliefs and affective experiences are salient and thus predominate at a certain point in time but that their performance may be comparatively low at other times when negative beliefs and affective experiences are salient and predominate. In this respect, research could, for instance, collect manager perceptions of performance consistency. Future research should aim to replicate the present findings with larger and more diverse samples as well as profit from the use of multiple-item scales to measure job performance. Geeta Kumari and K.M. Pandey [17] studied on stress management problem of Avtar steel industries, Chennai, India. Their main findings are the followings. A sample size of 100 is taken for the purpose of analysis made from primary and secondary data. Out of the total sample most of the respondents are male and many are between 50 and above.  Most of the respondents are under graduate and have professional qualification.   Most of the respondents have 10-15 years of long association with the organization.   Almost all the respondents are satisfied with the physical and psychological working condition of the organization, and only fewer respondents are dissatisfied with the psychological working condition of the organization.   The opinion about the training programs conducted by the organization is almost better, according to majority of the respondents.
While scales of the latter type focus specifically on cognitive processes, the set of items of the OJS captures both affective processes and cognitive processes of an individual’s job attitude (see Footnote 1). With respect to job ambivalence, similarly, we included items tapping both affective and cognitive processes to obtain a broad measure of an individual’s subjective experience of tension regarding his or her job. According to a report by the Associated Chambers of Commerce & Industry (Assocham), the Indian economy will create 87.37 million new jobs by 2015. The report clearly shows that Indian economy is rising and expected to grow by 7.5 per cent. The survey also indicates that there is positive trend in terms of creating job market; manufacturing sector reported maximum opportunities while agriculture contributes minimal opportunities.The report clearly shows that India is rising and becoming prosperous. Job satisfaction is a key consequence of attention in the study of organizations.Unquestionably work plays central role in the life of individuals. As employees spend half of the time in office it requires mental satisfaction at work. Apart from the fact that it occupies a lot of their time, it also provides the financial basis of their lifestyles. Thus, the context of employees’ job should be attractive and contribute to their satisfaction.
This paper tries and answers few of these questions with taxonomy of seven components of a good job. Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurableEmotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. We can argue that job satisfaction is an attitude but researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviours. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviours. Job satisfaction is not the sameas motivation, although it is clearly linked.This report examines the distribution of "good jobs" and "bad jobs", defined and reported by workers themselves. Survey of 500 workers across various sectors was done and the data was analyzed to figure out the ways Indian industries can improve its employee job satisfaction. The summary of taxonomy of good job as viewed by workers has been presented:  Incentives and hours of work, Management (Boss) & Colleagues, Availability of other better opportunities, Future prospect (promotion and job security), Difficulty of job (manually tiring, forceful overtime), Job content and interest, Prestige. They have been argued as an important correlates of a good job from workers point of view. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction of 1-5scale (where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5represents "extremely satisfied").

  1. TAXONOMY OF JOB SATISFACTION.

 

To determine employee job satisfaction a survey was conducted with a set a questions which asked them to rate job satisfaction factors:  Incentives and hours of work, Management (Boss) & Colleagues, Availability of other better opportunities, Future prospect (promotion and job security), Difficulty of job (manually tiring, forceful overtime), Job content and interest, Prestige on the scale of 1-5, 5 being most important factor and 1 being least. Then a question was asked for which employees had to rate their own job satisfaction on the scale of 1-5.
5- Highly satisfied, nothing can be better
4- Fairly satisfied, things can be improved with little efforts
3-Satisfied but not enough to hold you at same position
2- Not satisfied and don’t care if situations improve
1-Highly frustrated, definitely need a change in job.
These factors were chosen based on the study of Clark, A. E. (1998), “Measures of Job Satisfaction: What Makes a Good Job? Evidence from OECD Countries”, OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers, No. 34, OECD Publishing. The attributes were found very convincing and summarised the overall reasons of one being dissatisfied with his/her job. Job satisfaction is the feeling of self achievement aroused due to sense of comparison. Sense of achievement generally comes when individual compare themselves with their counterpart, say employees compare with the employees of other organization and so on. Parity, in the sense, may make people (or employees) feel satisfied (or job satisfied). Organization if wants their employees to be more satisfied with their work then they have to update themselves with the information of other organizations’ work ethics / culture and accordingly inculcate those in theirs’. Upheaval in work culture /ethics in recent decades made many organizations lag behind others especially PSUs or government owned organizations w.r.t their private counterparts who are more modernized or updated as far as work culture /ethics, equipment, management committee and other facilities (fiscal / non-fiscal given to employees) are considered. Many aspects consist in work ethics / culture and each have significant importance for employees’ satisfaction. Human resources management practices such as pay practices, job training and supervision enhances job satisfaction of employees and so turnover of company. Correlation among all these variables are well highlighted and analyzed by Hamdia Mudor and  Phadett Tooksoon ,2011”. Autonomy of performing tasks, increased communication with co-workers in work place reflects in higher job satisfaction and which is always a part of High Performance Workplace Organization (Thomas K. Bauer, 2004). With the recent change in work culture across the world and in general more influenced private sector all over the world, Public sector undertakings have been seen lagging behind as far as modern work ethics / culture is concerned. However, when PSUs tried to compete with their private competitors, they focused on productivity and so clients’ satisfaction but to achieve that they need to change or adapt to the modern new work ethics and culture suddenly from feudal culture they had been following for decades which in actual compelled many employees feel uncomfortable to adapt to and so caused occupational stress and lesser efficiency in their work.  Interrelation among Job satisfaction, occupational climate and occupational stress is well analyzed by K.K.Jain, Fauzia Jabeen, Vinita Mishra and Naveen Gupta in 2007.Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. We can argue that job satisfaction is an attitude but researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviors. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance; methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work position. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to rate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities, the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1-5 scale (where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5 represents "extremely satisfied").

  1. WHAT MAKES A GOOD JOB?

 

There are many theories giving necessary attributes of a good job, some theories and analysis emphasise that a good job is positively correlated with the incentives (Blanch flower, Oswald and Warr, 1993, for example) Employees based on gender, location and Sector were asked asset of questions and the frequency distribution of the data has been plotted and observed that it is more of less normal for few factors and skewed for other towards right.


Figure 1.
Difficulty of job: no one considers it to be highly important (5) factor and very few consider it to be moderately (3) influencing factor for job satisfaction. Availability of other better opportunity: Very high number of employees consider it moderately (3) important factor for job satisfaction. And a very few rate it highly important(4,5)Incentives and hours of work: very few considers it to be highly important(5) factor and very few consider it to be moderately(3) influencing factor for job satisfaction Management and colleagues: has been rated important factor by high number of employees but rated highly important by only few. Job prestige: has been rated important factor by high number of employees but rated highly important by moderately huge group of employees. Future prospect: Rated very highly important factor (5) by maximum number of employees and even rated important (4) by high number of employees. Job content and interest: Rated very highly important factor (5) by maximum number of employees and even rated important (4) by high number of employees.
This data has been assumed to be more of less normally distributed. Weight age factor (WF) for each parameter has been calculated using average method.

TABLE I.
WF can be used to tell how much a factor affects the Overall job satisfaction of an employee. Higher the weight age higher importance the factor has. Job content and interest is still a favoured choice of most employees in their job. Difficulty of job has been least important in determining job satisfaction. Incentives and hours of work has seems to be a very important factor but WF shows that it is only fifth most important factor in determining job satisfaction.

  1. JOB SATISFACTION IN INDIA.

 

India has been economically very progressive in last few decades. Survey has been conducted across the nation, North (Noida and Gurgaon), East (Kolkata), West (Ahmedabad), South (Chennai, Bangalore) in various sectors. Each employee has been asked to rate his job satisfaction on the scale of 1-5.
The data has been plotted for Sector, gender and location.


Figure 2.

 


Figure 3.


Figure 4.

Figure 5.
Figure 6.


Sector wise Distribution curve has been plotted for Female and Male for different locations.

(Note: for all the plot, x axis represents level of job satisfaction and Y axis represents number of employees.)



Figure 7.

Figure 8.
Figure  9.


Figure 10.


Figure 11.

Figure 12.


Figure 13.


Figure 14.


Figure 15.


Figure 16.

More number of Females working in Pharmaceutical companies in Northern India is satisfied with the job than in any other region. Similarly for males, the trend has been bit similar except that male employees in eastern pharmaceutical companies are as well satisfied. Study reflects that pharmaceutical companies in north and eastern India has more number of satisfied employees that south or western region of India.. (Fig 7, 8). Study shows that in manufacturing sector most of female employees are in all the regions are not satisfied  with their job where as males seem to be satisfied in this sector in South, north and western region..(Fig9, 10). In Education sector females most of the region has a good satisfaction level, none of the female is dissatisfied with the job. Whereas 33% males are dissatisfied and rest are either satisfied or highly satisfied with their job.. (Fig 11, 12).In IT overall job satisfaction is quite good in most of the regions with males and females. Except for few males who seem to be highly frustrated and rate their job satisfaction 1. (Fig 13, 14). In commerce and financial sectors High number of females are dissatisfied in western India whereas male are highly satisfied in southern India (Fig.15, 16).

  1. CONCLUSION.

 

Turning from values to outcome 7 broad attributes of a good job were identified. It has been shown that in India Employees tend to love their job if they get what they believe is an important attribute of a good job. Weightage factor of each such attribute based on exhaustive survey has been calculated. Region, sector and gender wise study of job satisfaction has provided consistent picture with respect to distribution of dataset analysed showed that most of the employees in Indian industry are not satisfied with their job except for a few like male in commerce sector and female in education sector. Total job satisfaction level of males is found to be higher than that of woman. Total job satisfaction level in manufacturing sector is found to be very low. In order of job satisfaction levels North has been best followed by South, East and West Study has been done on a broad level, which shows that overall job satisfaction level in India is very low. Improvement in job satisfaction level can be can done on the identified attributes and WF can be calculated for any organisation or a standard can be used to improve working environment quality, so as to make employees feel good. Job satisfaction depends on number of variables and can only be sorted at ground level by individual human resource department of particular industry.

References
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[17] Geeta Kumari and K. M. Pandey, "Studies on Stress Management: A Case Study of Avatar Steel Industries, Chennai, India," International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 360-367, 2011.

  1. [18]Kumari, G., Bahuguna, V., &  Pandey, K.M.,”Studies on Some Aspects of Job Satisfaction in Engineers India Limited,” Global Journal of Management and Business Research, Volume 12,Issue 7, Version 1.0, April 2012, ISSN:0975-5853.

[19]Kumari, G., Bahuguna, V, &   Pandey, K.M.,”Studies on Job Satisfaction: A Case study of Engineers India Limited,” Journal of Applied Management and Investment”, Volume 1, Nov., 2012.
[20] http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index.
[21]http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/ewco/reports/TN0608TR01/TN0608TR01_11.html.
[22] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job_satisfaction

 


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