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Paper Title :
JOB SATISFACTION AMONG COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY TEACHERS:
A STUDY OF UGC, ACADEMIC STAFF COLLEGE, H.P. UNIVERSITY, SHIMLA

Abstract
Job Satisfaction refers to the satisfaction of a person in his work. The concept of job satisfaction has been developed in many ways by many different researchers and practitioners. Job satisfaction is the level of contentment a person feels regarding his or her job. In the present situation, the teacher has the greatest role in moulding the future of the country. Orientation programmes and refresher courses provide an opportunity to a teacher to interact, reflect and introspect about the social expectations and their own roles in meeting these expectations. The main focus of the present study is to analyze the job satisfaction among college and university teachers. It has been found in the present study that majority of the college and university teachers found satisfy with the work culture, job security, performance appraisal and facilities and benefits provided by their organization. It has also been found that 46.7 percent respondents are highly satisfied with training and development programmes in their organization. It has been suggested by the respondents that Management should organize various workshops or seminars to keep teachers abreast with latest knowledge and skills.

Authors

Dr. Gagan Singh
Assistant Professor
School of Management Studies & Commerce
Uttarakhand Open University
Haldwani-Nainital Uttarakhand-263139 (India)

Ms. Rajwant Kaur
Assistant Professor
D.A.V College
Jalandhar, Punjab-144008

Dr. Virender Singh
Assistant Professor
Govt. College for Women,Lakhanmajra
Rohtak, Haryana-124514



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Paper Transcript of Paper Titled :
JOB SATISFACTION AMONG COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY TEACHERS: A STUDY OF UGC, ACADEMIC STAFF COLLEGE, H.P. UNIVERSITY, SHIMLA



JOB SATISFACTION AMONG COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY TEACHERS: A STUDY OF UGC, ACADEMIC STAFF COLLEGE, H.P. UNIVERSITY, SHIMLA


Dr. Gagan Singh
Assistant Professor
School of Management Studies & Commerce
Uttarakhand Open University
Haldwani-Nainital Uttarakhand-263139 (India)

Ms. Rajwant Kaur
Assistant Professor
D.A.V College
Jalandhar, Punjab-144008

 

Dr. Virender Singh
Assistant Professor
Govt. College for Women,Lakhanmajra
Rohtak, Haryana-124514


Abstract
Job Satisfaction refers to the satisfaction of a person in his work. The concept of job satisfaction has been developed in many ways by many different researchers and practitioners. Job satisfaction is the level of contentment a person feels regarding his or her job.In the present situation, the teacher has the greatest role in moulding the future of the country. Orientation programmes and refresher courses provide an opportunity to a teacher to interact, reflect and introspect about the social expectations and their own roles in meeting these expectations. The main focus of the present study is to analyze the job satisfaction among college and university teachers. It has been found in the present study that majority of the college and university teachers found satisfy with the work culture, job security, performance appraisal and facilities and benefits provided by their organization. It has also been found that 46.7 percent respondents are highly satisfied with training and development programmes in their organization. It has been suggested by the respondents that Management should organize various workshops or seminars to keep teachers abreast with latest knowledge and skills.
             Key Words:  Appraisal, Orientation, Perception, Refresher, Satisfaction.     

 Introduction         
          Job satisfaction is an amount of pleasure associated with a job. It is the extent of positive feelings or attitudes that individuals have towards their jobs. It reflects the overall attitude of workers towards the work, co-workers, the organizational environment and the social group at large.      However, while engaged in work, an individual seeks satisfaction under the three major needs, viz., human relations, work and livelihood. He seeks to satisfy many of his needs in and through his work. Job satisfaction refers to the feeling and the emotional aspects of the individual's experience towards his job as different from his intellectual or rational aspects. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job; a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. This feeling of job satisfaction is mainly based on an individual's perception of satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a person's ability to complete required tasks, the level of communication in an organization, and the way management treats employees.  However, most organizations realize that a worker's level of job satisfaction can impact her job performance. Many studies have shown that high performing employees do not necessarily feel satisfied with their job because of high-level titles or increased pay.
For improving the quality of higher education, different Commissions including Radhakrishnan Commission (1948) and Kothari Commission (1966) on higher education have recommended a sustained and purposeful development of academic staff. Established in June, 1989, the Academic Staff College of Himachal Pradesh University conducted its First Orientation Programme in Sept. 1989. It has pursued the objective of improving the professional competence of teachers in tertiary education with a difference. The concept of an orientation programme emphasizes teachers as agents of socioeconomic change and national development and underlines the need to make them skill –oriented teachers. Under the programme, it is intended to inculcate in young Lecturers the quality of self-reliance through their awareness of the social, intellectual and moral environment.

Review of Literature
            Bhatt, D.J. (1994) conducted a study on, "Job Satisfaction as Related to Organizational Variables". The study was attempted to find out the organizational factors which may affect the satisfaction level of the employees. Rust, Stwart, Miller and Pielack, (1996) carried out a study dealing with the satisfaction and retention of frontline employees. They concluded that intention to remain employed is strongly influenced by the level of employees satisfaction. Halakatti, V. Sunil and Sundara Swamy, B. (1997) made an attempt to study job satisfaction among assistants in Dharwad District of Karnataka, The findings revealed that greater the need for achievements, more favorable will be the feeling about organizational climate. Qamar, Forqan and Junaibi AL. Tallay, (2002) conducted a study to investigate National Origin of workers and its implications on satisfaction from reward in a culturally diverse work environment of UAE. The study was aimed at to point attitude difference between employee's belonging to different nationalities and ethnic groups. Sinha, S.K. (2004) carried out a research work to examine the relationship between type of organization and job satisfaction. Co-relational analysis revealed that in case of public sector engineers job-satisfaction is significantly (0.01) related with their age and experiences. Kanwar, Y.P.S., Singh, A.K. and Kodwani, A.D. (2009) studied the impact of work life and burnout on job satisfaction in the context of the information Technology (IT) and information technology enabled services (ITES) Industries.
Need and Scope of the Study
            Every individual carries out some jobs to earn his livelihood. It is necessary that individual must derive satisfaction out of that job. Job satisfaction increases employee’s attachment to the organization. The changing work scenario has added new dimension to teaching profession and has created a lot of job dissatisfaction among teachers. The present study will be helpful for the management of various institutes to know the factors which are causing dissatisfaction among teachers and the ways to decrease this job satisfaction. The main thrust of this study is to evaluate the job satisfaction among college and university teachers. The universe of the present study is confined to UGC Academic Staff College, HPU, Shimla. Furthermore, an effort has been made to cover both Orientation Programme and Refresher Course participants who have participated in the Orientation Programme (OP-114) and Refresher Course (RC-275) organized by the ASC, HPU, Shimla during the period of the present study.
Objectives of the Study
The following objectives have been laid down for the present research work:-

  • To evaluate teachers’ perception towards job satisfaction in their respective organizations.

2.         To examine the problems faced by the college and university teachers.
3.         To suggest suitable measures to enhance job satisfaction among teachers.
Hypotheses
            Keeping in view the objectives laid for the present study, the following hypothesis has been formulated:
Ho1:    There is no association between general background of teachers and their perception towards job satisfaction in their respective organizations.        
Research Methodology
            For accomplishing the objectives of the present study, both primary and secondary sources of information have been utilized. Secondary data has been collected from journals and websites. Primary data for the study has been collected through the questionnaire designed to get first hand information from the respondents regarding demographic, personal and job satisfaction.
Table-1 : Sample Size


S.N.

UGC, ACADEMIC STAFF COLLEGE, HPU, SHIMLA

NAME OF PROGRAMME

NO. OF PARTICIPANTS

SELECTION OF PARTICIPANTS

1

Orientation Programme (OP-114)

35

30

2

Refresher Course (RC-275)

33

30

TOTAL

68

60

Tools Used
          Consistent with the objectives of the study, different mathematical as well as statistical tools have been applied like arithmetic mean, median, standard deviation, skewness, percentages, chi-square as a test of association. 
Results and Discussion: To study the job satisfaction among college and university teachers attending orientation programme and refresher course, their working culture, work hours, salary, job security, performance appraisal system and facilities and benefits etc. provided to them in their respective institutions have been studied with the help of mathematically and statistically tools.
Table-2: Age of Employee and Job Satisfaction


Level of Job Satisfaction

Age of Employees in Yrs.

Total

Below 35

35-45

45-55

Highly Satisfied

6

4

3

13

(10.0)

(6.7)

(5.0)

(21.7)

Satisfied

23

17

4

44

(38.3)

(28.3)

(6.7)

(73.3)

Dissatisfied

2

1

0

3

(3.3)

(1.7)

(0.0)

(5.0)

Total

31

22

7

60

(51.7)

(36.7)

(11.7)

(100.0)

              X2 =2.44          P> 0.05   
Note – Figures in parenthesis depict the %age.
Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
Table 2 exhibits that majority of the respondents in low age group are highly satisfied and it is interesting to know that no respondent in high age group has been found dissatisfied with job. X2 test reveals that there is no significant association between age group and job satisfaction.
Table-3: Gender of Employee and Job Satisfaction


Level of Job Satisfaction

Gender of Employee

Total

Male

Female

Highly Satisfied

8

5

13

(13.3)

(8.3)

(21.7)

Satisfied

33

11

44

(55.0)

(18.3)

(73.3)

Dissatisfied

2

1

3

(3.3)

(1.7)

(5.0)

Total

43

17

60

(71.7)

(28.3)

(100.0)

                                                                    X2 =.934                                  P> 0.05
Note – Figures in Parenthesis Depicts the %age.
Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
From the above table 3, it has been found that 8.3 percent female respondents are highly satisfied with their jobs whereas 55 percent male respondents are satisfied with their jobs. While applying X2 test, it is found that calculated value of X2 test (.934) is less than table value at 5% level of significance which leads to accept the null hypothesis. It means that there is no significant association between gender and job satisfaction.
Table-4: Education Qualification of Employee and Job Satisfaction


Level of Job Satisfaction

Education Qualification of Employee

Total

PG

M. Phil

Ph. D

Any Other

Highly Satisfied

4

4

4

1

13

(6.7)

(6.7)

(6.7)

(1.7)

(21.7)

Satisfied

18

11

14

1

44

(30.0)

(18.3)

(23.3)

(1.7)

(73.3)

Dissatisfied

1

1

1

0

3

(1.7)

(1.7)

(1.7)

(0.0)

(5.0)

Total

23

16

19

2

60

(38.3)

(26.7)

(31.7)

(3.3)

(100.0)

                                                                           X2 =1.46                       P> 0.05   
Note – Figures in Parenthesis Depicts the %age.
Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
From the above table 4, it has been found that 23.3 percent respondents having Ph. D degrees are satisfied with their jobs whereas 6.7 percent respondents who are post graduate are highly satisfied with their jobs. It is interesting to know that only 1.7 percent respondents who are post-graduate and having M. Phil & Ph. D degree have been found dissatisfied with job. On the application of X2 test, it is found that there is no statistically significant association between education and job satisfaction.
Table-5: Experience of Employee and Job Satisfaction


Level of Job Satisfaction

Experience of Employee in Yrs.

Total

Below 5

5-10

10-15

Above 15

Highly Satisfied

4

5

2

2

13

(6.7)

(8.3)

3.3)

(3.3)

(21.7)

Satisfied

22

14

5

3

44

(36.7)

(23.3)

(8.3)

(5.0)

(73.3)

Dissatisfied

2

0

0

1

3

(3.3)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(1.7)

(5.0)

Total

28

19

7

6

60

(46.7)

(31.7)

(11.7)

(10.0)

(100.0)

                                                                            X2 =5.16                   P> 0.05
Note – Figures in Parenthesis Depicts the %age.
Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
From the above table 5 it has been found no respondent in medium and high group has been found dissatisfied with job. On the application of X2 test no significant association has been found between experience and job satisfaction.
Table-6: Position Held by Employee and Job Satisfaction


Level of Job Satisfaction

Position Held by Employee

Total

Asst. Professor

Associate Professor

Any Other

Highly Satisfied

12

1

0

13

(20.0)

(1.7)

(0.0)

(21.7)

Satisfied

34

6

4

44

(56.7)

(10.0)

(6.7)

(73.3)

Dissatisfied

3

0

0

3

(5.0)

(0.0)

(0.0)

(5.0)

Total

49

7

4

60

(81.7)

(11.7)

(6.7)

(100.0)

                                                                      X2 =2.53                          P> 0.05
Note – Figures in Parenthesis Depicts the %age.
Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
Table 6 exhibits that 56.7 percent assistant professors are satisfied with their jobs whereas no associate professor has been found dissatisfied with job. While applying X2 test, it is found that calculated value of X2 test (2.53) is less than table value at 5% level of significance which leads to accept the null hypothesis. It means that there is no significant association between positions held and job satisfaction.
Table-7: Income of Employee and Job Satisfaction


Level of Job Satisfaction

Income of Employee in Lakh

Total

Below 3

3-6

6-9

Highly Satisfied

5

6

2

13

(8.3)

(10.0)

(3.3)

(21.7)

Satisfied

14

21

9

44

(23.3)

(35.0)

(15.0)

(73.3)

Dissatisfied

1

2

0

3

(1.7)

(3.3)

(0.0)

(5.0)

Total

20

29

11

60

(33.3)

(48.3)

(18.3)

(100.0)

                                                                                       X2 =1.07                 P> 0.05
Note – Figures in Parenthesis Depicts the %age.
Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
Table 7 exhibits that in the medium income group, majority of the respondents are highly satisfied with their jobs whereas in the low income group, majority of the respondents, i.e. 56 percent are satisfied with their jobs. While applying X2 test, it is found that there is no significant association between income group and job satisfaction. However, majority of the respondents are satisfied with their job.
Table-8


Descriptive Statistics

Statistics

Working Hours and Job Satisfaction

Work Culture and Job Satisfaction

Opportunity for Promotion and Job Satisfaction

Salary and Job Satisfaction

Job  and Job Satisfaction

Performance Appraisal and Job Satisfaction

Training & Development and Job Satisfaction

Benefits and Job Satisfaction

Mean

1.67

1.87

1.90

1.68

1.42

1.63

1.63

1.65

Std. Error of Mean

.078

.080

.085

.073

.064

.071

.082

.062

Median

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

1.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

Mode

2

2.00

2

2

1

2.00

2

2

Std. Deviation

.601

.623

.656

.567

.497

.551

.637

.481

Skewness

.287

.095

.104

.090

.347

.072

.494

-.645

Table-9: Working Hours and Job Satisfaction

 

Nature of Responses

Number of Responses

Working Hours

Frequency

%age

Highly Satisfied

24

40.0

Satisfied

32

53.3

Dissatisfied

4

6.7

Total

60

100.0

Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
It is evident from table 9, that 53.3 percent respondents are satisfied with working hours whereas 40.0 percent respondents are highly satisfied with working hours. It can be concluded that majority of respondents are satisfied with working hours in their organizations.
Table-10: Work Culture and Job Satisfaction

 

Nature of Responses

Number of Responses

Work Culture

Frequency

%age

Highly Satisfied

16

26.7

Satisfied

36

60.0

Dissatisfied

8

13.3

Total

60

100.0

Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
It is evident from table 10, that 60 percent respondents are satisfied with the work culture of their respective organization The mean and standard deviation of work culture in relation to job satisfaction are 1.87 and 0.623 respectively, which shows that majority of the responses are towards the satisfied category of level of satisfaction.
Table-11: Opportunity for Promotion and Job Satisfaction

 

Nature of Responses

Number of Responses

Opportunity for Promotion

Frequency

%age

Highly Satisfied

16

26.7

Satisfied

34

56.7

Dissatisfied

10

16.7

Total

60

100.0

Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
It is clear from table 11, that 56.7 percent respondents are satisfied with promotional opportunities in their jobs whereas 26.7 percent respondents are highly satisfied with promotional opportunities in their jobs. It can be concluded that majority of respondents are satisfied with promotional opportunities in their jobs.
Table-12: Salary and Job Satisfaction

 

Nature of Responses

Number of Responses

Salary

Frequency

%age

Highly Satisfied

22

36.7

Satisfied

35

58.3

Dissatisfied

3

5.0

Total

60

100.0

Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
Table 12 exhibits that 58.3 percent respondents are satisfied with their salary whereas 36.7 percent respondents are highly satisfied with their salary. The mean, median, mode and standard deviation of salary in relation to job satisfaction are 1.68, 2.00. 2.00 and 0.576 respectively, which shows that the majority of responses are towards the satisfied category of level of satisfaction.

 

Table-13: Job Security and Job Satisfaction

 

Nature of Responses

Number of Responses

Job Security

Frequency

%age

Highly Satisfied

35

58.3

Satisfied

25

41.7

Total

60

100.0

Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
Table 13 shows that 58.3 percent respondents are highly satisfied with their job security whereas 41.7 percent respondents are satisfied with their job security. It is interesting to know that no respondent has been found dissatisfied with respect to the job security during the period of the study.
Table-14: Performance Appraisal System and Job Satisfaction

 

Nature of Responses

Number of Responses

Performance Appraisal System

Frequency

%age

Highly Satisfied

24

40.0

Satisfied

34

56.7

Dissatisfied

2

3.3

Total

60

100.0

Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
Table 14 reveals that 56.7 percent respondents are satisfied with performance appraisal system in their organization whereas 40 percent respondents are highly satisfied with performance appraisal system in their organization. It can be concluded that majority of respondents are satisfied with performance appraisal system in their organization.
Table-15: Training & Development Programmes and Job Satisfaction

 

Nature of Responses

Number of Responses

Training & Development Programmes

Frequency

%age

Highly Satisfied

27

45.0

Satisfied

28

46.7

Dissatisfied

5

8.3

Total

60

100.0

Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
Table 15 shows that 45 percent respondents are satisfied with training and development programmes in their organization The mean, median, mode and standard deviation of training and development in relation to job satisfaction are 1.63, 2.00. 2.00 and 0.637 respectively.
Table-16: Facilities & Benefits Provided and Job Satisfaction

 

Nature of Responses

Number of Responses

Facilities & Benefits Provided

Frequency

%age

Highly Satisfied

21

35.0

Satisfied

39

65.0

Total

60

100.0

Source – Data Collected Through Questionnaires.
It is seen in the Table 16 that 65 percent respondents are satisfied with the facilities and benefits provided to them by their institutions whereas 35 percent respondents are highly satisfied with the facilities and benefits provided to them by their institutions. It can be concluded that majority of respondents are satisfied with the facilities and benefits provided to them by their institutions.
Conclusion and Suggestions
Job satisfaction is a satisfaction of physiological, economic, psychological and social needs of an individual in his work. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job; a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. It has been in the present study that there is no association between age, education, gender, income, position and academic qualification of the respondents with respect to their job satisfaction. On the application of the X2   test, it has been found that in all the cases the calculated value of the X2 is test is less than the table value. Majority of the college and university teachers are satisfied with working hours, work culture, salary, opportunity for promotion and facilities and benefits provided to them, performance appraisal system and training and development programmes of their respective institutions. As far as their job security is concerned they are highly satisfied. It has been found in the present study that majority of college and university teachers complaining about the work load in their respective organization. They suggested that there should be more subordinate staff in order to ensure the smooth functioning in their institutions. Some of them suggested that there should be less involvement of the teachers in the extracurricular activities and management of the institutions should also ensure the quality education in their respective institution. 
In order to enhance satisfaction among college and university teachers following suggestions should be taken into consideration:

  • The work load should be rationalized.
  • Work autonomy should be given to promote creativity.
  • Performance appraisal system should be transparent. It should not be at the whims of the management.
  • Management should organize various workshops or seminars to keep teachers abreast with latest knowledge and skills.
  • Performance driven culture should be promoted in the institutions. Teachers with extraordinary standing should be honoured and provided additional incentives both monetary and non-monetary.

References

  • Bhatt, D.J., "Job Satisfaction as related to Organizational Variables," Indian Psychological Review, Vol. 42, 1-2 1994, pp. 9-20, 1994.
  • Halakatti, V.Suniland Sundara Swamy. B., "Job Satisfaction of Agricultural Assistants," Asian Journal of Psychology and Education, Vol. 30. No. 3-4. pp. 33-36, 1997.
  • Kanwar, Y.P.S., Singh, A.K. and Kodwani, A.D. "Work life balance and Burnout as predictors of Job Satisfaction in the IT-ITES Industry." Vision-The Journal of business Perspective. Vol.13, No. 2, April-June, 2009.
  • Qomar, Furqan and Junabi, Talal, Al., "National Origin of Workers and its Implications on Satisfaction from Reward in a culturally diverse work environment of UAF," Indian Journal of Commerce, Vol. 55, No. 3, July-September, pp. 33-43, 2002.
  • Sinha, S.K., "A study of Job-Satisfaction among Engineers employed in Private and Public Sectors", Asian Journal of Psychology and Education, Vol. 37, No.-1-2, Year, pp. 29-32, 2004.
  • Rust, T.R. Stewart, G.L. Miller and Pie-lack, D. "The Satisfaction and Retention of Frontline Employees: A Customer Satisfaction Measurement Approach," International Journal of service industry management. Vol. 7(50) pp. 62-80, 1996.
  • www.ugc.ac.in
  • www.ascshimla.org


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