ISSN (Online: 2321-5518, Print:2348–2885)
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IJTEMT

Paper Title :
TO STUDY THE INFLUENCE OF BENCHMARKING ON TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES OF MANAGEMENT EDUCATION EDUCATORS IN INDIA, W.R.T., ASPIRANTS

Abstract
Human Resource is the only asset in an organization which can appreciate with time if provided with proper inputs, and Training & Development interventions are few of those. Like any other organization, higher education also comprises of a diverse human resource asset, which is known as faculty and staff. And these faculty members are responsible for carving a bright and prosperous future for the Society and Nation. Higher education is a blend of traditional and professional courses of learning, which are governed under the direct supervision of apex bodies formulated by Government of India i.e., UGC (University Grants Commission), AICTE (All India Council for Technical Education), etc. Professional education comprises of various courses of learning such as management education, technical education, pharmacy, etc. From all of these courses of study, this study is primarily focusing on faculties of management education in India. This research work is primarily focusing on studying the status of benchmark practices of training and development of management education educators in India. This study was carried out to identify that whether benchmark practices designed for training and development activities are influencing the decision of management education educators of attending T & D programmes in India.

Authors:

Sumit Prasad
Ph.D. Scholar
Department of Management Studies, Campus Bhimtal
Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

Professor (Dr.) Atul Joshi
Department of Commerce
D.S.B., Campus Nainital
Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India


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Paper Transcript of Paper Titled :

 

To Study the Influence of Benchmarking on Training & Development Practices of Management Education Educators in India, w.r.t., Aspirants

Sumit Prasad
Ph.D. Scholar
Department of Management Studies, Campus Bhimtal
Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India
Professor Atul Joshi
Department of Commerce
D.S.B., Campus Nainital
Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India


 


Abstract—Human Resource is the only asset in an organization which can appreciate with time if provided with proper inputs, and Training & Development interventions are few of those.
Like any other organization, higher education also comprises of a diverse human resource asset, which is known as faculty and staff. And these faculty members are responsible for carving a bright and prosperous future for the Society and Nation. Higher education is a blend of traditional and professional courses of learning, which are governed under the direct supervision of apex bodies formulated by Government of India i.e., UGC (University Grants Commission), AICTE (All India Council for Technical Education), etc. Professional education comprises of various courses of learning such as management education, technical education, pharmacy, etc. From all of these courses of study, this study is primarily focusing on faculties of management education in India.
This research work is primarily focusing on studying the status of benchmark practices of training and development of management education educators in India. This study was carried out to identify that whether benchmark practices designed for training and development activities are influencing the decision of management education educators of attending T & D programmes in India.
Keywords- education; training; development; management education; educators; benchmark practices; aspirants; professional education; career stages

 Introduction

According to Flippo, training is the act of increasing knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. The major outcome of training is learning. A trainee learns new habits, refined skills and useful knowledge during training, that helps him improve his performance. Training is a tool for performing the same job with more efficiency and accuracy. Hence, it can be defined as a planned programme provided to bring performance improvement and persistent changes in skill, knowledge and behaviour pattern of an individual.  Basically, it is a planned learning experience performed by the organization to generate more skilled behaviour by the trainee. Training also imparts the ability to detect and correct errors. Accompanying to this, training also helps in providing the skills and abilities that may be required in future to satisfy the organizational human resources needs.
From the arguments regarding the importance of training and development practices it is noticeable that for making an organization and its human resource more effective we need to run training and development activities on a regular basis. Also, the importance and need of quality among professional education educators is required to deliver high performance to the students for their educational achievements.
An initial level of chats, with various educationalists, regarding the training and development practices for management education educators has highlighted that, their exist a gap regarding ineffectiveness in the interpretation and acceptance of true and honest efforts of training and development interventions of UGC and AICTE.
The research intend to identify the benchmark practices of training and development of professional education educators, their interpretation by them, and evaluation of these benchmark practices followed in India. Special emphasis has been made on studying the awareness and interpretation about the benchmark practices of training and development of professional education educators.
The purpose of this study is to assess the role of benchmark practices in attending training and development programmes, and their evaluation so that preparedness can be done for attaining the required results.
The question, this research is trying to answer is that, whether in India are there any benchmark practices of training and development of professional education educators, what is the level of awareness and interpretation about these practices among them and to identify evidence for value addition through these benchmarking.

Delimitation of the Study:

The de-limitations for this study were determined by a desire to gain a better understanding of the variable that affects the research undertaken, which are as:

  • Every professional course, for ex., engineering, management, pharmacy, bio-technology, computer applications etc., are very different in nature from each other, because of which the attributes required by the faculty members for these courses are also distinctive. This is the reason why, under the purview of professional education educators, only those faculty members who are involved in teaching the students of management programmes are considered for study undertaken.
  • In India, all universities and technical education functions under the aegis of UGC and AICTE. Therefore, for identification of population for designing sample frame, only those institutes are considered that are registered with UGC and AICTE.

Review of Literature

Herbert Simon has defined career as ‘an honorable occupation which one normally takes up during his/her youth with the expectation of advancement and pursues it until retirement’.  Thus the educators who have selected education as their career have to justify it, throughout their life for delivering the best quality to it. And for delivering this quality the job performance are required to be anchored or benchmarked. These job anchors or benchmarks are the standards setup to compare and evaluate the performance of these educators. Also, they provide an input for further improvement and enhancements. Referring to the study of Robin, ‘career anchors are distinct pattern of self-perceived talents and abilities, motives and needs, and attitudes and values that guide and stabilize a person’s career after several years of real  work experience and feedback’.
Five of such anchors are:

  • Technical/Functional competence: that focuses on the actual content of a person’s work.
  • Managerial competency: that focuses on holding and energizing managerial responsibilities.
  • Security: that gives stress on employment security and organization stability.
  • Autonomy: that seeks reduced organizational interference and provides independence and autonomy in decision making.
  • Creativity: anchored people have a zeal to create something that is entirely of their own making.

These career anchors are also accompanied with the career stages that define how an individual changes his/her role in the job during his entire life in a career. Ivancevich  and others have indentified the following stages as career stages: Pre-work (Exploration), Establishment, Advancement, Maintenance and Retirement.  Understanding of these career stages is of prime most importance for both the employee and the organization, as this will help in identifying the training need and setting the benchmark accordingly. This also helps the employees to prepare themselves for future stages and to plan accordingly for deriving maximum satisfaction through their career.
Table 1: Career Stages and Important Needs


Career Stages

Age

Needs

Exploration

20-25

Safety, Security and Psychological

Establishment

25-30

Safety, Security

Advancement

30-45

Achievement, Esteem, Autonomy

Maintenance

45-55

Esteem, Self-Actualization

Retirement

55-65

Self- Actualization

a)      Pre-work (Exploration): This stage begins prior to even entering the workforce on paid basis and ends in mid twenties. It is the time when one is inclined towards self-exploration and assessment of all the alternatives available as a career. They have to follow and learn the directions of their seniors and superiors. This is the stage of psychological state of dependence.
b)      Establishment: This stage includes peers acceptance, job learning and gaining the experience and evidences of failures or successes in the real world. Distinct from previous stage, in this stage the psychological dependence is comparatively less, or we can say that the employee is psychologically independent. This is the most important stage for the future
c)      Advancement: Employees entering into the stage of advancement, have started to play of role of mentors for the employees who are in their first stage of career i.e. exploration. The main objective of this stage is to perform the central activity of training and interactions with others. These people assume responsibility for the work of others and this may cause psychological stress.
d)      Maintenance: This stage is usually not encountered by all the employees. Only those who could get through the advancement stage are able to come to this stage. For those who could not get through the third stage, for them, advancement stage is considered as their maintenance stage. This stage deals with the activity of shaping the direction of the organization. They are the person who plays the role of manager, planner, entrepreneur, idea generator, etc. They have to identify and plan the career of their successors and interact with the important people outside the organization.
e)      Retirement: This is the last stage in the career of an employee, within an organization. This is the phase of life where most valuable human asset see-offs to the organization for various or obvious reasons.
Depending upon these career stages, even in professional education system, there are different types of roles to be performed by a professional education educator in India. From the starting phase of his career to his retirement, he has to play the role of teacher, guide, mentor and planner in his working department. Accordingly, there is a need to study the various benchmark practices used for these professional education educators so that the outcome of training and development practices can be maximized.
Training helps people to enable changes in them for their development so that their job performance can be enhanced effectively, and for training to be an effective intervention a systematic training need must be analyzed.
There is a vast range of training needs to be identified, which depends upon the nature of job to be completed and the people who will perform it. And if training wants to accompany the future strategy then it is required to be situation specific. Job analysis including job description, job specification and job standardization are the three important inputs that play an important role in identification of training needs. It is very important to be aware of the purpose and nature of the job before proceeding further towards identification of training needs for improvement. Job Analysis is a tool to investigate the job to be performed by an individual or a group and the data so generated, regarding job classifications, is important for analysis of organizational training need. Job Analysis is comprises of three components i.e. Job Description, Job Specification and Job Standardization. Where a Job description is a statement about a job defining all the tasks, roles and responsibilities to be performed by an individual on that particular job; Job Specification is the description of all the eligibility criteria’s and traits required in that person. However, Job Standardisation is defined as the benchmarks that are required to be performed by that job performer in order to optimize his output.
In the context of present study, these Job Standardizations are the Benchmark Practices formulated for the professional education educators in India for delivering high quality education to the students, so that the maximum benefits can be transferred to them. In this study, these benchmarks, which are formulated or practiced, by various bodies or institutions (such as UGC or AICTE), for measuring and enhancing the quality standard of the professional education educators, are under study to establish their validity with their job.
It is well established facts that, the process of training need identification remain questionable; unless and until there is a properly conducted job analysis is not available. This job analysis lists out all the tasks, skills and competencies that are required to perform these jobs effectively. Along with this job standardization helps to identify the present competency gap in the job performer so that the training needs can be identified accordingly. This is a continuous cyclic process, where benchmarks or standards helps us to identify the competency gap in an individual, so that the training programme can be designed or identified accordingly, and then the outcome of these training programmes helps to redefine these benchmarks for the individual for further improvement. Any wrong selection of a benchmark or training programme will results into wastage of resources or overlapping of skills, and hence it will turn-out to be wasteful for them. Hence, this will become very important to evaluate these benchmarks practices so that, when the professional education educators will identify a training need for them, they do not commit a mistake in identifying training need. Now a day Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is also serving as an important tools for effective training need identification. HRIS provides quick information regarding the profile of an employee and helps in identifying the competency gap and training need by comparing his job performance against the job description provided by job analysis.
Goldhaber & Anthony, 2004 ; Rivin, Hanukshek & Kane, 2005  suggested that the significant factor which affects the students’ learning is teaching.
Berg, 2010 , has suggested that ‘the achievement gap which is reflected in the act of student is an effect of performance gap of a teacher’.
Pulla Rao, D (2009) , suggested that training for teachers in higher education is relatively a new phenomenon. In pursuance of the proposal of the NPE-1986, the government of India has established 48 academic staff colleges, which impart in-service training to the teachers of higher education. At, present 51 of such academic staff colleges/human resource development centres are functioning. These institutions are fully financed by UGC and are supposed to conduct short term training courses along with the orientation course for newly recruited teachers and refresher courses for existing ones. HRDC/academic staff college of Uttarakhand is in Kumaun University Nainital. Here we are not much concerned about where the training is conducted, but the point of concern is how a training need has been identified for any teacher and how it is so sure that the training need which has been identified is the appropriate solution to the problem faced. Is there a specific method for training need analysis or it has been identified by the trainee at random. This can be identified by evaluating benchmarks practices, which are available for professional education educators, for their training and development.
Frost & Fukami, 1997 , has opined that ‘strong knowledge base about dimensions of effective management teaching is required by the management faculties because they have unique teaching context and subjects, to teach’. This is an indication to observe that the training needs identified and benchmark established for management education educators are different from other professional courses, and this is the reason why, in this study only management education educators are delimited as professional educators in India.
Oldfield and Baron, 2000 , have identified the importance of quality of ‘personal contacts’ in higher education, for teachers’ competency personal contacts are one of the important dimensions.
According to Allan 2002, Australian companies spend $5 billion annually on their employee training. However, Walter 2002 concluded that even after such a huge sum spent on training and development, the field of workplace training is still emerging as a discipline.
Learning is a process, which is a blend of trial and error, being told, imitating and thinking. Considering all these four, Knowles, 1975 ; Houle, 1996 ; Thiagarajan & Thiagarajan, 1999 ; cited in Abell, 2000 , that learning among individual is not though experience per se, however, they learn from reflecting on their experience.

Research Gap

All these arguments, together, suggest the important of training and development practices for professional education educators for developing their competencies and integrating their job roles with institution and students. Also, these arguments suggest the importance of quality in teaching for delivering high quality inputs to the students and satisfying them in their all expectation.
From the above arguments, researcher has deduced the following:

  • What are the various benchmark practices for training and development of professional education educator in India?
  • What is the relevance of these benchmark practices for professional education educator in India?
  • Does faculty members are having awareness about these benchmark practices?

Research Methodology

During the initial phase, a pilot study was conducted on management education educators, and the responses recorded are utilized for finalizing instrument for studying the responses. Items in instrument are different point Likert Scale, including three reverse coded items. The questionnaire was administered over 391 management education educators, using two stage sampling technique. In stage one proportionate stratification sampling technique and in stage two purposive sampling techniques was followed.
The study aims at evaluating the benchmark practices of training and development of professional education educators in India, with respect to aspirants. The sample selected for the study is representative of almost entire population. The sampling technique followed, as also discussed earlier, is a two-stage sampling technique, where ‘proportionate stratification’ (in proportionate stratification, the sample size of each stratum is proportionate to the population size of that stratum. This means that each stratum has the same sampling fraction) is the stage one and at stage two method of ‘purposive sampling’ technique is followed for collecting data from respondents, considering that the respondents are those management education educators who have undergone training and development programme or who are undertaking any one.  The entire population is grouped into six zones/strata viz., East, West, North, South, Central, and Union Territory for an approximate proportionate representation of entire population of management education educators in India, as shown in (Table No. 2: No. of Responses).
Out of the entire sampling unit/population of 58,201 a sample size of 391 is drawn considering a 95% confidence level, with ± 05 % precision level and maximum degree of variability i.e., 0.5. Cochran (1963:75) formula is used for making calculation of sample size. The sample size so calculated was 383, still, 8 more is added to this figure as a margin for covering incomplete questionnaires, if any. However, the respondents were very energetic and participative for the study undertaken, hence, there were no incomplete questionnaire submitted from them. This leads the researcher to conclude and include the responses of all the 391 respondents in this study. Also, a similar kind of schedule is circulated among the training programme organizers and trainers, to check the symmetry among the responses of the trainees towards the evaluation of benchmark practices of training and development for management education educators. Size of responses from such organizers/ trainers was limited to only 50 because, this study is primarily focused on aspirants, however, inclusion of trainers in this study is  only to observe their opinion and response towards benchmark practices not to evaluate those practices on the basis  of the responses of trainers/organizers. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20 and Microsoft Excel 2007. 
Table No. 2: No. of Responses


S. No.

Strata/ Region

No. of Educators

Responses Drawn

1

Central

13,847

93

2

East

1,107

07

3

West

10,128

68

4

North

4,874

33

5

South

27,108

182

6

UT

1,137

08

Total

58,201

391

Research Objective

To determine whether training and development activities are influenced by benchmarking practices.

Research Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis (H0): Training and Development activities for professional education educators in India are guided by benchmark practices.

Alternate Hypothesis (H1): There are no benchmark practices for training and development activities of professional education educators in India.

Data Analysis and Result

Responses were collected from management education educators in India and downloaded as an excel spreadsheet. Data for the first part was demographic in nature and was analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007. There were a total of six questions covering Designation, Area of Specialization, State/UT, Gender, Age Group, and Category (only for studying the representation of different sects of the society). Descriptive statistics was applied on the data collected (Table No. 3).
This hypothesis is purposefully trying to investigate that the training programmes which are attended by management education educators are either govern by some benchmark practices or they are attending those training and development activities at random manner without any benchmarking. For doing so, chi-square test along with cross-tabs is administered on question no. 2 and question no. 6, 7 and 8.
Question No. 2: I have attended at least one orientation/ induction/ any training program within a year of joining service.

Question No. 6: There is a systematic method of identifying training needs and developing training objectives for the faculties of management education and I am well aware of it. (Table No. 4 and Table No. 5)

Question No. 7: Normally I use to select a training and development programme for myself depending upon the availability and access of that training programme. (Table No. 6 and Table No. 7)

Question No. 8: I use to select a training and development programme for myself depending upon its predetermined objectives and relevance with my professional requirements. (Table No. 8 and Table No. 9)

Referring to the cross-tabs for question no. 2 and question no. 6, 7 & 8 and observing the p-value which is 0.000, 0.020 and 0.008 respectively, below the standard value of significance i.e., 0.050, concludes that the Null Hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted while indicating a strong evidence of absence of benchmark practices for training and development of professional education educators in India.
The responses of trainees and observations have shown evidences that there are probably no benchmark practices for training and development.
It is also important here to scrutinize the responses of question 6, 7 and 8 for trainees.

Question No. 7 (For Trainees): Normally I use to select a training and development programme for myself depending upon the availability and access of that training programme.
Table No 10: (For Trainees): Normally I use to select a training and development programme for myself depending upon the availability and access of that training programme


Response

Frequency

Percent (%)

Strongly Agree

22

5.6

Agree

353

90.3

Neutral

15

3.8

Disagree

1

0.3

Strongly Disagree

0

0

Total

391

100.00

2_Influence_of_Benchmarking_on_Training_Development_Practices_of_Management_Education_Educators_In_India_Vol_IV_Issue_VI
Question No. 6 (For Trainees): There is a systematic method of identifying training needs and developing training programmes for the faculties of management education and I am well aware of it.
Table No. 11: (Trainees): There is a systematic method of identifying training needs and developing training programmes for the faculties of management education & I am well aware of it


Response

Frequency

Percent (%)

Strongly Agree

34

8.7

Agree

238

60.9

Neutral

82

21.0

Disagree

36

9.2

Strongly Disagree

01

0.3

Total

391

100.00

2_Influence_of_Benchmarking_on_Training_Development_Practices_of_Management_Education_Educators_In_India_Vol_IV_Issue_VI

Question No. 8 (For Trainees): I use to select a training and development programme for myself depending upon its predetermined objectives and relevance with my professional requirements.
Table No. 12: (Trainees): I use to select a training and development programme for myself depending upon its predetermined objectives and relevance with my professional requirements.


Response

Frequency

Percent (%)

Strongly Agree

57

14.6

Agree

325

83.1

Neutral

06

1.5

Disagree

02

0.5

Strongly Disagree

01

0.3

Total

391

100.00

2_Influence_of_Benchmarking_on_Training_Development_Practices_of_Management_Education_Educators_In_India_Vol_IV_Issue_VI

Responses to the afore-said two questions do not appear in harmony. Approximately 70% respondents claimed that there is a systematic manner in which training needs are identified and they are aware of it. Response to question no. 7 indicates that 96% (approx) respondents attend T&D programmes on the basis of availability and convenience. There is a clear indication that a good proportion of respondents seem to be contradictory. The issue was therefore analyzed in more detail. Interviews were arranged with 50 such respondents and efforts were made to understand the nature and reasons for contradictory responses. Informal discussions in hassle free environment were carefully paraphrased following the meeting and it was reveled that some respondents either could not completely understand the situation or responded carelessly. Some had decided to respond in a socially acceptable manner and still others wanted to be politically correct. In support of the above argument, when a question, complementing the above condition, was framed in front of the trainers, the response so obtained has helped in highlighting the scenario that, there exists a gap between organizers, parent institutions and trainees while organizing and attending any training programme. This is an indicator, that the process of training need identification for management faculties, designing a training programme for them and its implementations are conducted in isolation, which might hamper the effectiveness of that training programme.

Conclusion

Training and development activities have been designed by policy makers to ensure genuine value addition in the knowledge and skill base of educators. The policies and practices designed may appear brilliant on paper but are not contributing to the purpose of which they were designed. The strategy formulation process follows a top-down approach and its implementation is quite negligible, however, on papers the implementation process seems to be complete, but again, it’s only paper work. The feedback mechanism developed by trainers, academic staff colleges and HRDC’s gives an impression that everything is ok with T&D practices. The question is, if everything is ok then the resources put-in must be manifested in intangible or tangible forms, such as, good and quality publications that contribute in some way or the other to the betterment of the stakeholders or patents that can be reasonably commercialized for social and economic benefits. The participants in these training programmes and the trainers including the resource personnel, usually, congratulate themselves and each other for the great job they have done or are doing. They seem to be living in a ‘make believe world’ which is isolated from the real world. Professional education can be said to be meaningful and effective only if it integrates the broader interest of the society and the world. Our training and development practices have failed miserably in realizing these objectives.
The learner is apparently living in a state of confusion, the reasons for which are deep rooted in our society. The problem begins with the expectations of parents which may be very often are not in tune with what the child aspire. The confusion is further aggravated in institution of professional learning when the syllabus design and content does not match industry expectations. A confused learner may not be able to contribute upto the level his potential. Societal objective more often than not are relegated into the background. The natural talent or core competencies inherent in an individual are rarely or never tapped. People with a natural talent and passion for music are becoming accountants and sports persons are assuming the role of engineers. Consequently, resources including human resources are not being channelized in the right manner, resulting in a criminal waste of talent.
It would not be an exaggeration to say that higher education in the country needs a complete overhaul. The statement is also justifiable by the fact that the UGC has already expressed concerns about the state of affairs and the urgency with which changes need to be introduced. Management education in the country is relatively new and has been carved out of commerce. However, the content and mode of teaching is quite similar to that of the traditional courses. The dynamic nature of the discipline requires constant updation and upgradation of syllabi, courses, teaching methodologies and the teachers. The training and development needs of management education educators are slightly different from those of traditional disciplines. They can be highlighted as:

  • There are no training institutions or staff colleges dedicated specifically to serve the interests of management teachers.
  • Courses and content more often are not in tune with industry requirements.
  • Learning is mostly restricted to classroom teaching. Industry interface is negligible or nonexistent. 
  • The training programmes in HRDCs also do not make any efforts to involve men from the industry.
  • Practical exposure of most of the management teachers is almost nil.
References

Shaw, N Robin., Career Orientation of Marketing Employees: An Empirical Analysis, Track 16, Strategic Marketing Issues, pp 2431- 2438
Ivancevich, J.M. (2003). Human Resource Management, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.
Goldhaber,  D.  &  Anthony,  E.  (2004),  Can  teacher  quality  be  assessed?,  Evans  School  of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Washington, D.C.
Rivin, S.G., Hanushek. E.A., and Kain, J.F. (2005),  ‘Teachers, School, and Academic Achievement’, Econometrica, Vol. 73, No. 2, pp 417-458.
Berg,  J.  H  .  (2010),"Constructing  a  Clear  Path  to  Complished  Teaching",  Theory  into Practice, vol 49, pp. 193-202.
Pulla Rao, D., (2009): Development of Teachers Education in India: An Historical Perspective.
Frost, P. J. & Fukami, C. V. ( 1997), "Teaching effectiveness in the organizational sciences: Recognising  and  enhancing  scholarship  of  teaching",  Academy  of  Management  Journal, vol 40, no. 6, pp. 1271-81.
Oldfield,  B.M.  &  Baron,  S.  (  2000),  "Student  perceptions  of  service  quality  in  a  UK University business and management faculty",  Quality Assurance in Education, vol 8, no. 2, pp. 85-95.
Prasad, S., and Chaudhary, A., (2011), “Training System for Education Industry-An Outline”, International Journal of Trade Economics and Finance, Vol. 2, No. 3, June 2011, pp 200-203. 
Allan, Les 2002, The Myth of the Silver Bullet and how to improve the effectiveness of training, Australian Institute of Training and Development, Chatswood, Vol 29 No 1, pp 13-18, February.
Knowles, Malcolm Shepherd 1975, Self-Directed Learning: A Guide for Learners and Teachers, Follett Publishing Company, Chicago, USA
Houle, Cyril Orvin 1996, The Design of Education, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, USA
Thiagarajan, R and Thiagarajan, S 1999, Experiential Learning/Jolting Learners, Training 1999 Conference, Chicago, USA; February
Abell, Millie 2000, Soldiers as Distance Learners: What Army Trainers need to Know, Futures Training Division, US Army Headquarters Training and Doctrine Command, Fort Monroe, Virginia, USA
Cochran, W. G. 1963. Sampling Techniques, 2nd Ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Prasad, S., Analyzing and Identifying Training and Development Needs of Department of Management Studies, Bhimtal, ISTD Report, 2013.
Chaudhary, A., Prasad, S., Training for Development of Professional Education, IJIMT, Vol. 2, No. 2, April, 2011, ISSN: 2010-0248, pp. 162-165.
Chaudhary, A., and Prasad, S., Human Resource Financial Management, International Journal of Trade Economics and Finance, Vol. 1, No. 4, December 2010, pp 342-344.
Prasad, S., Chaudhary, A., & Prasad, S., Training System- A Perspective. IJIMT, Vol. 2, No. 1, February, 2011, ISSN: 2010-0248, pp.69-72.
Chaudhary, A., Prasad, S. (2010), Human Resource Financial Management, IJTEF, Vol. 1, No. 4, Dec, 2010, 2010-023X, pp. 342-344.
Prasad, S., and Chaudhary, A. (2013), Evaluation of Benchmark Practices of Training and Development of Professional Education Educators in India: A Proposal with respect to Aspirants, International Journal of Trends in Economics Management and Technology (IJTEMT), Vol II Issue 1, February 2013, pp 37-43.
Prasad, S., Analyzing and Identifying Training and Development Needs of Department of Management Studies, Bhimtal, ISTD Report, 2013.

  •  
  •  
  • AUTHORS PROFILE
  • Sumit Prasad is pursuing his Ph.D in Management under the valuable guidance of Professor Atul Joshi, Department of Commerce, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, State- Uttarakhand, India.
  •  
  •  


Table No. 3: Descriptive Statistics

 

N

Range

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Variance

Skewness

Kurtosis

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

Statistic

2. I have attended at least one orientation/ induction/ any training program within a year of joining service.

387

2

1

3

1006

2.60

.773

.598

-1.501

.370

6. There is a systematic method of identifying training needs and developing training objectives for the faculties of management education and I am well aware of it.

391

4

1

5

1441

3.69

.768

.591

-.758

.445

7. Normally I use to select a training and development programme for myself depending upon the availability and access of that training programme.

391

3

1

4

777

1.99

.324

.105

.195

9.524

8. I use to select a training and development programme for myself depending upon its predetermined objectives and relevance with my professional requirements.

391

4

1

5

1608

4.11

.439

.192

-.546

9.514

 

Table No. 4: Cross-Tab for Question No. 2 and 6


Crosstab

 

Question No. 6

Total

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Question No. 2

No

Count

1

22

15

27

4

69

Expected Count

.2

6.4

14.6

41.7

6.1

69.0

% within Question No. 2

1.4%

31.9%

21.7%

39.1%

5.8%

100.0%

% within Question No. 6

100.0%

61.1%

18.3%

11.5%

11.8%

17.8%

% of Total

.3%

5.7%

3.9%

7.0%

1.0%

17.8%

Can't Say

Count

0

0

2

14

1

17

Expected Count

.0

1.6

3.6

10.3

1.5

17.0

% within Question No. 2

0.0%

0.0%

11.8%

82.4%

5.9%

100.0%

% within Question No. 6

0.0%

0.0%

2.4%

6.0%

2.9%

4.4%

% of Total

0.0%

0.0%

.5%

3.6%

.3%

4.4%

Yes

Count

0

14

65

193

29

301

Expected Count

.8

28.0

63.8

182.0

26.4

301.0

% within Question No. 2

0.0%

4.7%

21.6%

64.1%

9.6%

100.0%

% within Question No. 6

0.0%

38.9%

79.3%

82.5%

85.3%

77.8%

% of Total

0.0%

3.6%

16.8%

49.9%

7.5%

77.8%

Total

Count

1

36

82

234

34

387

Expected Count

1.0

36.0

82.0

234.0

34.0

387.0

% within Question No. 2

.3%

9.3%

21.2%

60.5%

8.8%

100.0%

% within Question No. 6

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

% of Total

.3%

9.3%

21.2%

60.5%

8.8%

100.0%

Table No. 5: Chi-Square Tests For Question No. 2 and 6


Chi-Square Tests (For Question No. 2 and 6)

 

Value

Df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

60.078

8

.000

N of Valid Cases

387

 

 

Table No. 6: Cross-Tab for Question No.2 and 7


Crosstab

 

Question 7.

Total

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Question No. 2

No

Count

3

59

6

1

69

Expected Count

3.9

62.8

2.1

.2

69.0

% within Question No. 2

4.3%

85.5%

8.7%

1.4%

100.0%

% within  Question No. 7

13.6%

16.8%

50.0%

100.0%

17.8%

% of Total

.8%

15.2%

1.6%

.3%

17.8%

Can't Say

Count

0

17

0

0

17

Expected Count

1.0

15.5

.5

.0

17.0

% within Question No. 2

0.0%

100.0%

0.0%

0.0%

100.0%

% within  Question No. 7

0.0%

4.8%

0.0%

0.0%

4.4%

% of Total

0.0%

4.4%

0.0%

0.0%

4.4%

Yes

Count

19

276

6

0

301

Expected Count

17.1

273.8

9.3

.8

301.0

% within Question No. 2

6.3%

91.7%

2.0%

0.0%

100.0%

% within  Question No. 7

86.4%

78.4%

50.0%

0.0%

77.8%

% of Total

4.9%

71.3%

1.6%

0.0%

77.8%

Total

Count

22

352

12

1

387

Expected Count

22.0

352.0

12.0

1.0

387.0

% within Question No. 2

5.7%

91.0%

3.1%

.3%

100.0%

% within  Question No. 7

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

% of Total

5.7%

91.0%

3.1%

.3%

100.0%

Table No. 7: Chi-Square Tests For Question No. 2 and 7


Chi-Square Tests (For Question No. 2 and 7)

 

Value

Df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

15.080a

6

.020

N of Valid Cases

387

 

 

a. 7 cells (58.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .04.

Table No. 8: Cross-Tab for Question No.2 and 8


Crosstab

 

Question No. 8

Total

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Question No. 2

No

Count

1

2

3

56

7

69

Expected Count

.2

.4

1.1

57.2

10.2

69.0

% within  Question No. 2

1.4%

2.9%

4.3%

81.2%

10.1%

100.0%

% within  Question No. 8

100.0%

100.0%

50.0%

17.4%

12.3%

17.8%

% of Total

.3%

.5%

.8%

14.5%

1.8%

17.8%

Can't Say

Count

0

0

0

16

1

17

Expected Count

.0

.1

.3

14.1

2.5

17.0

% within  Question No. 2

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

94.1%

5.9%

100.0%

% within  Question No. 8

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

5.0%

1.8%

4.4%

% of Total

0.0%

0.0%

0.0%

4.1%

.3%

4.4%

Yes

Count

0

0

3

249

49

301

Expected Count

.8

1.6

4.7

249.7

44.3

301.0

% within  Question No. 2

0.0%

0.0%

1.0%

82.7%

16.3%

100.0%

% within  Question No. 8

0.0%

0.0%

50.0%

77.6%

86.0%

77.8%

% of Total

0.0%

0.0%

.8%

64.3%

12.7%

77.8%

Total

Count

1

2

6

321

57

387

Expected Count

1.0

2.0

6.0

321.0

57.0

387.0

% within  Question No. 2

.3%

.5%

1.6%

82.9%

14.7%

100.0%

% within  Question No. 8

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

% of Total

.3%

.5%

1.6%

82.9%

14.7%

100.0%

Table No. 9: Chi-Square Tests For Question No. 2 and 8


Chi-Square Tests (For Question No. 2 and 8)

 

Value

Df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

20.831a

8

.008

N of Valid Cases

387

 

 

a. 10 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .04.



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